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Theory Exam

Theory Constructs Exam: OT I

QuestionAnswer
Name four reasons for theory, what do they aid in? 1. Categorize 2. Organize 3. Retrieve 4. Language
Name four things that describe what theory is? 1. Description 2. Explanation 3.Prediction 4.Design for outcome studies
Definition of Broad Theory, what does it explain? Definition: Systemic, theoretical, and scientific basis of occupation itself It explains the person-occupation-environment relationship
What is Broad Theory specificity to a population? Give all examples of Broad Theories, there are 4. NO specificity-could be used for multiple people/groups Examples: MOHO (model of human occupation), OA (occupational adaptation), PEO (person environment occupation), EHP (ecology of human performance) PEOP (person environment occupation performance)
Definition of Discrete Theory, what does it explain? Definition: Scientifically based innervation It explains * how to do---- initial evaluation, measure outcomes, design treatment intervention, * See how change occurs (in relation syndrome,illness, etc *Which assessments to use
What is Discrete Theory specificity to a population? Give 5 examples of Discrete Theories Certain clients and groups Examples: Motor learning, cognitive behavior, cognitive rehabilitation, neurodevelopment treatment, sensory integration
Define proposition. Formal statements about causes and effects or the nature of relationships between components and a theory
Define assumption. Ideas we believe to be true
Define tact/implicit Knowledge based on information or experiences that we cannot easily put into language
Let's say you created a model of change, how can you evaluate it, what questions can you ask yourself? Is it logical? Is it supported by evidence? Can I translate tact/implicit knowledge to explicit preposition?
What is the early medical model's primary focus? Heal and remediate people, view of health-absence of disease- reductionism
What was the role of an OT within the medical model? Was there a change? OT helped people adapt/ compensate for lost function Yes, there was change due to crisis--OT went from looking at one component of a person to looking at the whole person--a functional being shifted to holistic health
What does the ICF (International Classification of Functioning) model contribute? The ICF model gave a common language, a comparison and a systematic coding for various levels of functioning
Name 5 ICF contexts. Products and tech, natural and human made environments, support and relationships (community organizations), attitudes, services, systems, policies (government)
Client centered model, what was the big change? Switch from patient to client- client is a more active role-patient is a passive receiver, shift empowered the indidivual
Carl Rogers, what did he do? (1950s-1960s) Developed client centered therapy
Abraham Maslow, what did he contribute? (1950-1960s) The idea of self-actualization-people's needs to make something of themselves and contribute to the world--Maslow pyramid
What is the Canadian Model of Occupational Performance (COPM)? What is the OT's role in this? Interaction between client, environment, and occupation OT role: to enable occupation
COPM: Name 3 personal components. What was is the first to do? Affective/emotional, cognitive, and physical, also the first model to introduce spirituality
COPM: Name 4 environmental components. Physical, cultural, social, and institutional
Name the occupations in the COPM. self-care, leisure, productivity
What is occupational performance? The interaction between person, environment, and occupation all coming together,
What are COPM principles? (There are 5) Client choice, respect for diversity, therapeutic partnership, empowerment, recognizing environmental conditions and demands
Levels of context or environments in COPM? Also who created the CPM? immediate, proximal, community and society Brofenbrenner created it later adapted by Spencer
Main definition for General Systems Theory. (GST) Entities cannot be understood from their separate parts but only when studied as an entire configuration Idea of Holism developed: focusing on the relationships between the parts that connect to make a whole
Who created GST? What did he oppose? Von Bertalanffy 1968 The idea of reductionism (from early medical model)
Name and describe the 3 components of systems theory? Open system`s: constant interchange of information, energies, and materials with one’s environment Dynamic: constant motion, constant change (depending on various input) System = “An entity that is greater than the sum of its parts
Difference between hierarchy and heterarchy Hierarchy: Directional organization of concepts (linear) Heterarchy: not linear, different units reorganize themselves according to the challenge or task at hand
What is complex systems theory? Emerged from general systems theory as an approach to describe complex systems’ dynamics such as emergence, adaptation, and self-organization
What is chaos theory? Chaos theory: emerged as an approach to describe multiple variables and their unpredictability.
What are the bases of MOHO- Model of Human Occupation? Humans biologically mandated to be active Thinking /feeling /doing are influenced by a dynamic interaction between one’s internal components and the environment The human is an open system
Is MOHO considered a hierarchy or heterarchy? Heterarchy- non linear, parts of system will interact depending on situation
Is MOHO a broad or discrete theory? Predominantly broad theory -It gives guidance for our practice, including many developmental assessments -Many OT’s use MOHO as a discrete theory or a frame of reference because of the assessments it provides
Who developed MOHO who was he influenced by? Developed by Gary Keilhofner, he was influenced by Mary Reilly and her ideas of occupational behavior
What are the foundations of occupational behavior? (MOHO) Exploration, competence, and achievement
Assumptions of Occupational Behavior: "man has a need to ___, ___, and ____ his environment (MOHO) master, alter, and improve
Assumptions of Occupational Behavior: What are ways people express occupational behavior, what influences occupation (MOHO) Roles Society and Culture
Occupational behavior involves what (2)? (MOHO) Rest between physical, temporal and social environments Daily routine of work and play
What does participation in occupation create? (MOHO) Occupational identity
What is occupational competence? (MOHO) Sustained participation in occupations that represent occupational identity
What is occupational adaption? (MOHO) Outcome of positive occupational identity and achievement of occupational performance
What are key components/systems of MOHO? (there are 4) Open systems theory Volition (motivation) Habituation (patterns & routines) Performance capacity (physical & mental/cognitive abilities)
5 parts of environment related to MOHO, which 3 were added as the theory developed Social, Physical, Cultural, Economical, Political Cultural, Economical, and political
Which context- influences occupation and which one gives meaning to it? (MOHO) Influenced by physical context, give meaning through sociocultural context
What is the ecological approach to visual perception? Idea of affordances (objects in our environment offer us experiences) Action possibilities in the environment in relation to action capabilities of an individual Affordance either exist or they don’t dependent on the individual
Who created the ecological approach to visual perception? James J. Gibson
Why did groups of occupational therapists in several different locations at basically the same point in time find it important to develop an ecologically focused model? All three ecological models were developed in the 1990’s because many OT’s felt there was not enough emphasis on the role of the environment in participation of occupations
What are ecological models? Overarching theories/Broad theories Encompass all of occupational therapy Provide general guidelines for practice but not specific assessment or intervention techniques
What are the foundations of ecological models? Social science Bronfenbrenner (levels of context that we function in) Gibson Lawton Csikszenmilhalyi Disability movement
What is environmental press of ecological models? Press= demands of the environment Good fit= person’s behavior and affect match the environmental press
Who created the idea of environmental press? M. Powell Lawton- primary work on older adults
What is flow in ecological models? “Being in the zone” Occupation is a good fit and we forget time and everything else around us
Who created the idea of flow? Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi (BIG NAME GUY)
Two parts of disability movement and definitions of both. Independent living movement: a physical disability is perhaps created by the environment (physical barrierst) accessibility issue Recovery movement (stigma towards mental illness, perception of those with mental illness) mostly deals with social
What are occupational therapy models considered? All open systems theory
What is the occupational therapy model of person environment and occupation? Illustrates person's life span and occupational performance ( person, environment and occupation) through ven diagrams-lots of overlap is considered optimal
Who created the occupational therapy model of person environment and occupation? Law
What is the occupational therapy person environment occupational performance? Anyone of the intrinsic factors can be influenced by an injury or disability or sickness , can be more positive or negative ven diagram-occupation and performance, occupational performance/participation (person and environment)
Who created the person environment occupational performance Christiansen and Baum
What is the ecology of human performance? T=TASK in the environment (using the word tasks instead of occupation so that this theory could be used by more than just OT’s) Some tasks we have to complete as a part of daily living and some we want to do, Can, willing, able, what they enjoy
What are the innervation strategies for EHP, there are 5. Establish/restore – remediation Adapt/modify – compensation Alter Prevent Create
Who created the the ecology of human performance? Brown, Dunn, McGuigan
What is occupational adaptation? A theory explaining an individual’s internal adaptation process The more adaptive a person is… the more functional they can be Occupational adaptation leads to functional outcomes
What is the difference between Occupational adaptation and MOHO? MOHO describes occupational adaptation as the specific outcome of a positive occupational identity and achievement
Main assumptions of occupational adapations Adaptation that occurs through occupation leads to competence Competence is a lifelong process of adaptations which lead to internal and external demands An occupational challenge is the stimulus for an adaptation
Process and State of occupational Adaptations Process: a series of actions, internal to the person, which unfold as the person is faced with an occupational challenge The state: a state of competency toward which human beings apprise
What are the three stages of occupational adaptation? 1. Internal Factors of response-desire for mastery 2.External factors of response-occupational environment 3. Change/Motivation
Who created occupational adaptation? Janette Schkade and Sally schultz
KAWA theory what is is? Translate subjective views of self, life, and well-being in the meaning of occupations Life is like a river flowing from birth to end of life Life circumstances can affect this flow, like rocks in the river
Who created KAWA theory? Was developed from Eastern philosophical perspectives
Iwa and Driftwood of KAWA? Iwa: represents discrete circumstances that are considered to be impediments to one’s life-flow § Driftwood: represents the subjects personal attributes and resources, such as values honesty, character, personality, special skills, etc.
Sukima and spaces of KAWA Sukima: where life energy still flows, promise of OT. Spaces: potential channels for the client and therapist to determine multiple points and levels of interventions
What is globalization? Expansion of theories beyond clinical community Multilevel perspectives, moving away from reductionism to a contextual and population based approach
What is occupational justice who created it? Principle of empowerment through occupation Recognition of economic and social value of occupations Individual and collective enablement of occupational potential Townsend and Wilcock
What are occupational rights Equity and fairness for individuals engaging in meaningful occupations
Broad Systems theories: Health Behavior Model: Facilitates a health behavior change Explains the way people examine and balance competing factors, therapists must identify barriers and goals
Broad Systems theories: Stages of Change Model: Helps practitioners understand how ready the person may be to make a change :Stages of change, Pre-contemplation, comtemplation, preparation, action, maintanence
What is Social Cognitive theory? Who was it developed by Emphasizes how to change a behavior Self-efficacy and mastery Developed by Bandora
Created by: kmackdaddy
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