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Colonial America

Columbus to French & Indian War + 13 Colonies

TermDefinition
Exploration Reasons include God, Glory, and Gold
Physical geographical features proximity to Atlantic coastline determined where settlements and colonies were created. Appalachian Mts. blocked western settlement. The different geographies of the colonies resulted in vast economic differences among them.
Colonization competition between European nations encouraged this in North America.
Charter contract/agreement granted to companies to establish a colony
Mercantilism Country must sell more than it buys/ chief reason to colonize the Americas
Catholic form of Christianity/ Pope is leader of the worldwide church
Protestants/Protestantism “No pope” form of Christianity/opposition of Roman Catholic Church in Europe/Priest Martin Luther MVP
Pilgrims (capital P) 1620/protestants now termed ”Separatists”/ search for religious freedom/lower class/ Mayflower voyage
Puritans late 1620s-30s/ Protestants want to “purify” the church/ middle-class/educated read Bible /larger group than the Pilgrims/believe one religion = social stability/
Quaker pacifist (peacemaker) religious group seeking religious freedom/slavery violates Christian principles/ PA colony
Roanoke,Virginia Attempt at settlement by the English was unsuccessful/John White/ Croatoan Island
Mayflower Compact 1620/ MA/ FIRST form self-government/ agreed on laws/41 English colonist aboard Mayflower
Virginia House of Burgesses 1619/*FIRST representative assembly (people elect) in the colonies/ INDIVIDUAL rights/ power to make laws/ served as model for other colonial legislatures
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut 1638/FIRST constitution in the colonies/ limited powers of leaders / colonists right to elect governors, judges, and a legislature/ establishes self-gov’t / gave gov’t right to collect taxes/ Thomas Hooker
Pocahontas helped John Smith and European settlers in Jamestown, Virginia
English Bill of Rights Gave English citizens individual rights/ used as a model for U.S. Constitution
First Great Awakening 1730s -1740s/religious freedom movement/Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield/ministers call for “a new birth”/strong faith of earlier days/united colonists from all over
Enlightenment Movement 1750s/began in Europe/knowledge, reason, and science improve society
John Locke Enlightenment philosopher/ personal liberty can coexist with political order/ influenced Thomas Jefferson and the Declaration of Independence
Charles de Montesquieu expanded on Locke's beliefs/wrote Separation of Powers/Locke & Montesquieu's influenced many colonial leaders.
Representative Government Colonists needed to keep order/policies created by representatives selected by the people/ “salutary neglect” - colonies not bothered by king for years.
Limited Government Ensure leaders are unable to abuse their power
Indentured Servant free passage to a new country if work land/7-10 years/mainly from England to colonies
Bacon’s Rebellion Revolt of former indentured servants & farmers/ action against the Native Americans who were attacking colonists’ settlements/ unsuccessful
Transatlantic (Triangle) Slave Trade Started in British West Indies to provide labor for sugar plantations in Americas/ later include cotton, tobacco leaves
Cash crop a crop easily sold in markets
Plantation System large land in southern colonies/rich soil/year-round growing = cash crops/ will lead to Agrarian Economy
Anne Hutchinson Puritan/ Massachusetts Bay Colony/disputed and challenged colonial men religious practices/ brought to trial excommunicated
Eliza Luca Pinckney Carolinas/developed indigo (dye)/important cash crops.
Enslaved African-Americans no rights/united by family and religion
Free African-Americans Able to work in small business (low wage) /restricted rights/ lowest social class/limited education/ united by family and religion
Magna Carta 1215/document limited the power of England’s Monarch/protected English from cruel treatment/ example for the 13 colonies/ allowed for legal protections for anyone accused of crimes. .
Royal (Crown) Colony Intended to benefit the Crown. Ruled by royal governor who is chosen by Monarch. NY, VI, NC, SC, GA, NH, NJ
Charter Colony Individuals hoping to make profit purchased stock in companies to finance colonization/applied to King for charter (agreement btw monarch and colony)/ CT, RI, MA
Proprietary Colony Granted by the King directly to an individual or family. This ind/family governed the colony as they saw fit - held title, made laws, granted land, collected rent, courts, churches. Expected to report to the King. PA, MD, DE
King Phillip’s War 1675–1676/ early and bloody conflict btw English and Native Amer/ Metacom - N.A. chief/Puritans spread from Boston/ took more land/heavy loss of NA lives
Salem Witch Trials 1692/ 3 girls/ ill with “fits”/accused residents of using witchcraft on them/ 150+ Massachusetts colonists accused of witchcraft/29 were convicted/19 hanged/At least six people died in prison
New England Colonies (Northern Colonies) Atlantic Ocean/hard winters/rocky soil/ deep forests/shipbuilding/natural harbors/swift rivers/fish/fur/timber/ mainly Puritans. *Never Make Cynthia Run = NH, MA, CT, RI
New Hampshire 1622/John Mason/Religious freedom/free from eco. rules/profit from trade and fishing/treated harshly by Puritans, so they moved North.
Plymouth Rock, Massachusetts 1620-1691/ Pilgrims (Separatists) /William Bradford - pol. leader/ seeking religious freedom/Mayflower Compact/ off course from Virginia so settle here.
Connecticut 1636/Thomas Hooker/religious and political freedom/expand trade/leaders of Mass. colony asked Hooker and followers to leave.
Rhode Island 1636/Roger Williams/religious freedom/most tolerant colony/ want separation of church & state
Middle Colonies Atlantic Ocean/ag and cattle/rivers with ports/mild winters/ fertile soil/metals/ grain ("breadbasket")/ welcome immigrants/ mainly Quakers and Catholics * New Pennies, New Dimes = NY,PA, NJ,DE
New York 1624/1st named New Netherlands /Settled by Dutch for economic reasons/ goals = trade & profit/ taken by English in 1664 (New Amsterdam = NYC)
Pennsylvania 1682-1776/Settled by Quakers/Religious freedom/William Penn/limited gov’t-legislature/religious tolerance (Equal)/home to many immigrants/trade and profit land sales
New Jersey 1613/ settled by Dutch/ goals = trade and profit from land sales/taken by English 1664/ once part of New York
Delaware 1638/settled by Swedes/economic reasons/ goals = trade & profit/ taken by English 1664/ once part of PA
Southern Colonies Ag and cash-crop/cotton/ indigo/ tobacco/ rice/low pop. density/ warm climate/good soil/ plantation system will lead to agrarian economy/ * My vehicle needs some gas = MD, VA, NC,SC,GA
Maryland 1632/ “safehaven” for Catholics/religious reasons/Lord Baltimore /profit land sales/Maryland Toleration Act of 1649 = freedom for worship/slow growing / Queen Mary
Jamestown, Virginia 1607/first permanent English colony/John Smith/ tobacco using enslaved Africans/water on three sides/safe from Spanish/Powhatan/Starving Time/Queen Elizabeth
North Carolina 1663/group of 8 proprietors (investors)/goals = trade and profit/vast land/religious freedom
South Carolina 1663/group of 8 proprietors (investors)/ goals = trade and profit/vast land/rel. freedom/rice major crop
Georgia 1732/James Oglethorpe/Debtor colony- offered prisoners a way to work off debt/buffer between the other British colonies and Spanish Florida
Created by: pdelam4