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Lab Safety

Lab safety in the histology lab

QuestionAnswer
What are the 3 major classes of hazards? Biological (infectious), mechanical, and chemical.
For a substance to be infectious... It must contain enough pathogens of sufficient virulence to cause an infectious disease when a susceptible host is exposed to it.
OSHA stands for US Occupational Health and Safety Administration
CDC stands for Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Bloodborne Pathogen Standard became effective in what year? 1993
Who enforces the Bloodborne Pathogen Standard? OSHA
Universal Precautions should be practiced in any environment that includes... Blood, semen, vaginal secretions, synovial fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, pleural fluid, peritoneal fluid, pericardial fluid, and amniotic fluid.
Types of specimens that are excluded from universal precautions unless blood is visibly seen. Feces, sputum, and vomitus.
BBP Bloodborne Pathogen Plan
Bloodborne Pathogen Plan Engineering controls that isolate or remove the bloodborne pathogen hazards from the workplace, and work practice controls that reduce the likelihood of exposure by altering the manner in which a task is performed.
PPE Personal Protective Equipment
Personal Protective Equipment To be used when occupational exposure remains after these controls are implemented.
Institutional and Lab Policies are required to have.... An exposure control plan.
Exposure control plan Covers the broad topics of housekeeping, personal protection, and waster disposal.
Primary concerns for histopathology personnel. Frozen sections, autopsy, surgical gross dissection, and cytology prep.
When gloves become dirty, can you wash them and continue working or must you throw them away? OSHA requires disposable gloves to be thrown away when contaminated or damaged.
CAP College of American Pathologists
Open toed foot wear should not be worn in the lab and is stated so on the accreditation check list of... CAP
TB infection control program is based on... Detection, airborne precautions, and treatment.
Requires a documented TB exposure control plan. CAP
Cryogenic sprays should not be used n the frozen area because... The spray may aerosolize TB and increase the chance of infection.
Personel at risk of for HBV should be offered the Hep B vaccine at no charge within how many days? 10 days of initial assignment
Employees who have ongoing contact with patients or blood and who are at risk for percutaneous injuries are to be tested for _ surface antigen within 1-2 months after the completion of the vaccination series. HBV
CJD Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
A prion disease affecting primarily the nervous tissue and resulting in spongiform change in the cortex and subcortical what matter of the brain. CJD
Prion Abnormal protein
CJD Prions are... Resistant to formalin, some organic solvents, enzymes heat ionizing radiation, freezing, drying, and autolysis.
All tissue waste and any materials coming in contact with tissue should be disposed in _ Biohazard bags
Blades, broken glass, razors, and slides should be disposed of in a... Sharps container
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
Serves as the advisory agent in regards to hazardous waste CDC
Serves as the regulatory agent in regards to hazardous waste EPA
CDC and EPA recognize 4 types of infectious waste: 1. Microbiologic or culture material 2. Pathologic material 3. Blood 4. Sharp objects
Steam sterilization preferred Microbiologic or culture
Incineration Preferred Pathologic
Down the sink Blood
Mechanical Hazards Sharp instruments, glass, and electrical hazards.
Who regulates Sharps containers? OSHA under BBP standards
Sharps containers are defined as.... Engineering controls
Must be color coded, closable, and puncture resistant. Sharps container
Must remain upright, be easy to reach, and at a height that allows employees to see when it is full. Sharps container
Cumulative trauma disorders (Musculoskeletal Disorders; MSDS) Carpal tunnel syndrome, trigger finger, tendonitis, and thoracic outlet compression syndrome
Ergonomics The science of adapting the working environment to the anatomic, physiologic, and psychological characteristics of personnel to enhance their efficiency and well being.
_ requires accredited labs to have a documented ergonomics program to prevent MSDs. CAP
Ensures that workers know the hazards of associated with the chemicals in their workplace so they can protect themselves. OSHA Hazard Communication Standard
GHS United Nations Globally Harmonized System
Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemical in the Lab (Lab Standard) Requires a Chemical Hygiene Plan for implementing practices to minimize exposures to hazardous chemicals.
SDS Safety Data Sheets (formerly MSDS)
Lab standard applies to Labs that 1. Chemical manipulation 2. Multiple chemical procedure or chemicals used 3. protective lab practices and equipment are available and in common use 4.Not part of a production process.
_ requires labeling on all containers with the identity of the chemical and appropriate hazard warnings. CAP
Hazardous chemicals are chemicals that cause acute or chronic health effects in exposed employees as defined by... OSHA
Hazardous chemicals gain entry into the body by 1. Inhalation 2. Absorption 3. Ingestion
PEL Permissible Exposure Limit
PEL Permissible Exposure Limit is the maximum exposure to a chemical in an 8 hour period.
TWA Time Weighted Average
Max TWA for Formalin 0.75ppm
STEL Short Term Exposure Limit
How long is a short period in terms of STEL? 15 minutes
STEL for formalin? 2.0ppm
If initial TWA is above 0.5ppm Then the monitoring should be repeated every 6 months.
If monitoring reveals employees at or above the STEL Then monitoring must be repeated at least once a year.
Monitoring results must be provided to the employees within how many days? 15
Substances that cause or greatly increase the risk of malignant disease. Carcinogen
Carcinogens are regulated by OSHA
NPT National Toxicology Program
IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer
Carcinogens include: Chloroform, Chromic Acid, parosaline, and bennzidine based dyes. Formaldehyde is potential. Bis-chloromethyl added to hydrochloric acid and formaldehyde induces lung cancer.
Corrosive substance Substances that will cause injury to the skin and eyes by direct contact or severe damage to the tissues of respiratory alimentary tracts when inhaled or ingested.
3 elements needed to start a fire: 1. Air or oxygen 2. Fuel 3. Ignition
Name the four groups of fire A: Organic material (wood, paper) B. flammable liquids (Chemicals) C. Electrical fires D. Metal fires
Name what to use to extinguish a fire in each group of fire: A: Water, foam, or dry B: CO2 dry chemical and foam C:halon, CO2, and dry D:ABC extinguisher
Toulene flashpoint 4.4
Xylene flashpoint 27.2
Requires that all solvents be stored in fire safety cabinets and safety cans. OSHA and NFPA
A 1 gallon spill will cover how many square feet? 20
eyewash should be used for at least how many minutes? 15
NFPA and CAP allow 1 gallon per how many square feet of combustible solvents to be outside a storage cabinet in the lab? 100
NFPA and CAP allow how many gallons to be stored per 100 square feet when combustible solvents are placed in a safety cabinet? 2 gallons per 100 square feet.
Requires labs to have documented policies and procedures for the adequate disposal of hazardous waste. CAP
Label requirements under the Hazard Communication Standard include: 1. Pictogram 2. Signal Words 3. Hazard Statement
NFPA diamond colors starting from left to right. Along with associated meanings. Blue: Health Red:Flammability Yellow: Reactivity White: Special symbol
Who requires an actual word describing hazard be placed on the container? OSHA
OSHA require an employer to keep an incident report for how many year? 5
Formalin exposure records and determinants shall be kept for at least how many years? 30
Medical records shall be kept for how long?v(Formalin) The duration of employment plus 30 years.
Respirator fit testing records shall be kept until when? (Formalin) Replaced by a more recent record.
Created by: Ziek98