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Colonial America CBA

TermDefinition
1607 founding of Jamestown, first permanent English settlement in North America, significant because it became a profitable venture producing tobacco and using enslaved Africans; from Jamestown colonial settlement spread to later include Williamsburg.
1620 arrival of the Pilgrims and signing of Mayflower Compact, significant because this represented the establishment of self-government in the colonies.
Reasons for Exploration God, Gold, Glory. Initially many nations sponsored exploration to find faster routes to the Asian markets of the Indian Ocean. National pride and a competition between the rising nations-states of Europe fueled exploration and colonization.
Reasons for Colonization Nations colonize for economic opportunity. Mercantilism: Europe use colonies as source of raw materials and markets. Puritans are colonists to escape religious persecution and find political freedom and economic opportunities. French fur trappers.
Political Reasons for English Colonies Competition between European nations encouraged colonization in North America Charters were granted to companies to establish colonies Monarchs in Europe had money to fund colonial endeavors
Economic Reasons for English Colonies Increase trade and markets for English exports (mercantilism) Source of raw materials Availability of land attracted colonists Belief that gold and silver was abundant in the Americas
Religious Reasons for English Colonies Many groups came seeking religious freedom
Social Reasons for English Colonies Opportunity for adventure Opportunity for personal prestige Owning land allowed for social mobility
Mayflower Compact agreement that established the idea of self-government. It provided a model for later development of representative government. A social contract where all agreed to abide by these rules.
The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut first written constitution in the colonies. This document stated that people had the right to elect governors, judges, and a legislature. Was written by the people; the fact that it was written down gave it credence.
Virginia House of Burgesses first representative assembly in the American colonies. Representatives immediately began to enact laws and safeguard individual rights. Set precedent in the colonies for individual rights protected by law.
Enslaved African Americans Political – no political voice; no rights Economic – labor of the plantation system; considered property; Social – viewed as property; viewed as outside the American identity;
Free African Americans Political – no political voice; limited/restricted rights Economic – low-wage earners/could own business Social – lowest social class; limited access to education; socially isolated; three most basic refuges: family, religion, and resistance
New England Region Physical Characteristics Atlantic Ocean, subsistence farming, poor soil, cold climate, forest. Boston and Portland have natural harbors
New England Region Human Characteristics Economic factors : raw materials, logging, fishing, shipbuilding Political factors: town meetings, representative government Social factors small coastal towns(Boston only large city), Religious factors : Puritans
Middle Region Physical Characteristics Rich soil; broad, deep rivers; more natural ports; river valleys, mild winters, raw materials, Atlantic Ocean, New York City has a natural harbor
Middle Region Human Characteristics Economic factors : large farms, logging, fishing, shipbuilding Political factors : more tolerance Social factors :small coastal towns(Philadelphia and New York were large cities), Religious factors : Quakers, Catholics
Southern Region Physical Characteristics Appalachian Mountains, navigable rivers, richer soil, warm climate, raw materials, Norfolk, Baltimore, and Charleston hasve natural harbors
Southern Region Human Characteristics Economic factors: plantations Political factors: more enslaved people, more class-based society Social factors: small coastal towns (Savannah, Baltimore, and Charleston were large cities), Religious factors: Church of England, Catholics (Maryland)
Immigrant Groups in early colonial America French fur trappers and traders British farmers Spanish conquistadors and mission-building Africans brought for slavery or indentured servitude
Economic Differences in the Colonies New England – shipbuilding and manufacturing region Middle Colonies – agriculture and cattle-producing Southern Colonies – agricultural; cash crops: rice, indigo, tobacco
Plantation System Large amount of land available in the southern colonies; rich soil; almost year-round growing season; ideal for plantation crops (tobacco, rice, indigo, cotton) - with enough labor these could be grown as cash crops
Transatlantic Slave Trade Started in British West Indies or West Africa with enslaved people to provide a labor force for sugar plantations Triangular trade developed between colonies, England, West Africa, and West Indies. enslaved people were exchanged in colonies for goods.
Spread of Slavery Demand for rice, indigo, tobacco, cotton led to slaveholders demanding more enslaved people resulting in an increase in the slavery trade.
New England Economy Cause – long winters, rocky soil, and forests Effects – subsistence farming, shipbuilding, and fishing
Middle Colonies Economy Cause – shorter winters, fertile soil, good ports, and natural resources Effects – farming, trade, and large immigrant population
Southern Colonies Economy Cause – warm climate and good soil Effects – plantation system and large slavery system
Thomas Hooker reverend/leader of group of Boston Puritans that migrated to Hartford, Connecticut; Wrote the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (the first written constitution in America and included individual rights);
William Penn he founded a colony in present-day Pennsylvania where Quakers could live according to their religious beliefs and make political decision according to those beliefs. Created an elected legislature as a feature of Pennsylvania’s self-government.
Reasons for Settlement Dutch (New York) – economic reasons English – religious and political freedom Religious groups – immigrated to flee religious persecution including: Separatists/Pilgrims/Puritans (Massachusetts), Quakers (Pennsylvania) & Catholics (Maryland)
Anne Hutchinson led Bible studies which brought into question Puritan theology and divided the community in Boston. brought to trial, convicted, and banished from the colony. She and supporters resettled in Portsmouth, Rhode Island, and she later moved to New York City.
Eliza Pinckney credited with developing indigo as a cash crop first on her family’s plantation in South Carolina and then throughout the South.
Maryland founded as a safe haven for persecuted Catholics from England. Protestants soon outnumbered Catholics leading to the passage of the 1649 Maryland Toleration Act which allowed freedom of worship for all Trinitarian Christians.
Plymouth allowed self-governing churches with each congregation independent and electing its own pastor and officers
Pennsylvania William Penn’s Frame of Government of Pennsylvania established a colonial government that provided political freedom and guaranteed religious freedom to all settlers in Pennsylvania
Rhode Island Roger Williams left Massachusetts to found Rhode Island in 1636 on the premise that there would be no state church
First Great Awakening Revivalist movement where preachers (Jonathan Edwards & George Whitefield) addressed crowds saying they could gain salvation by repenting & study the Bible for themselves. Equality, religious freedom and toleration. Religion grew in numbers as a result.
Mercantilism Economic Cause for colonization
Primary reason British colonized Religious Freedom
The start of the 13 Colonies due to economic conditions, i.e. food shortages, loss of jobs, increase in mercantilism
Pennsylvania Quakers
Representative Government in the Colonies Began due to colonists being used to parliamentary systems in Britain and they experienced salutary neglect from Britain so were forced to create their own government
Maryland Catholics
Religious Leaders and Representative Government started self-governing communities
Growth of Slavery A result of agricultural system/plantation economy
Puritans/Pilgrams New England Colonies
Atlantic Ocean Allowed cities to grow fast
Appalachian Mountains Created a block that kept colonists from moving west
French Explorers Fur Trade
New England Furs, Fish, and Timber
Middle Colonies Grains, Flour, Metal, Goods
Southern Colonies Tobacco, Indigo, and Rice. Had good and fertile soil perfect for plantations/large scale agriculture.
Transatlantic Slave Trade Started on sugar plantations in the West Indies
New York Dutch
Roger Williams Separation of Church and State
Created by: anna.melton