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Chapter 2 Test

By the late 16th century 2 European countries were seeking to control the New World? Britain and Spain
Identify England's First 2 attempts at colonization. What happened at each? Humphrey Gilbert - lost at sea Sir. Walter Raleigh - tried to settle 3 times but violence and weather stopped him
explain the nature of a joint-stock company stock was sold to high network investors which provided capital and had limited risks.
what was England's 1st successful colon in America? when as it founded? who was the leader? what became the primary source of income? Jamestown Colony; 1607; John Smith; Tobacco
what were indentured servants? people that received a free passage to the colonies in exchange for 4-7 years of free labor. These people were men, women, and sometimes children.
who were the separatists? where in America did they come to? English protestants who occupied the extreme wing of puritanism. the separatists could mainly be found in Plymouth, Massachusetts. they were fleeing from religious prosecution.
what was the Mayflower Compact and why was it significant? The Mayflower was the 1st governing document of Plymouth county. it was significant b/c it was a document that established a civil politic until 1 could be more permanently established.
who was William Bradford? William Bradford was the 2nd governor elected under the mayflower compact and he was elected for30 years.
what group came to the Massachusetts bay colony? who was their leader? the group name was "the puritans" and the leader was John Winthrop.
what was the meaning of forming a "city upon a hill"? to be an example for the rest of the world in rightful living
what was the 1st college founded in America? what was its purpose? Harvard university (1636); Instituted for the purpose of training ministers.
what was the Great migration? 14,000 puritan settlers went from England to Massachusetts in efforts to spread the colony.
Identify 3 or 4 characteristics of puritan life 1. wanted children to be able to read the bible 2. male supremacy: women were not allowed in town meetings and were excluded from church decisions. 3. church(mandatory) 4. everything was centered around God
what were the ideas of Anne Huchinson? what happened to her? she believed puritans should be allowed to practice their own faith and she declared that the church wasn't teaching the truth. she was banished from the colony and excommunicated from the church of Boston.
who was Roger Williams? what colony broke from Massachusetts Bay as a result of his actions? How was it different from Massachusetts Bay? An English reformed theologian (puritan) - later a reformed Baptist who believed in the separation of church and state (Rhode Island) and that they should have freedom of religion/ church was separate from state.
Who was Thomas Hooker? Identify the Fundamental orders of Connecticut and explain their significance. -A puritan minister agreed with the aspects the church except of linking voting rights -Fundamental orders of Connecticut: agreement between colonial communite of Hartford, Wethersfield&Windsor established rep. gov. basedon ex. of # Massachusetts colonies
Who was Tituba? What drama did she instigate? the Caribbean slave of reverend Samuel Parris who was accused a witch. She was thought to be the witch responsible for cursing several other town girls.
What was spectral evidence? Puritans believed that Satan could not take the form of any unwilling person. therefore, if anyone saw a ghost or spirit in the form of the accused, the person in question must be a witch.
How many people were executed during the Salem Witch Trials? 20 people and 2 dogs
What are some explanations for how this tragedy was possible? -the smallpox disease -salmonella from raw chicken
Who was Henry Hudson? Where was New Netherlands? How did it become New York? English explorer brought NY to attention of the NLands It extended Albany NY in N to Delaware in the S & surrounded parts what are now states NY,NJ,PA,MD,CT&DE 1664 English sent fleet seize new NLands gave up w/o a fight renamed the colony NY after james
Which religious group founded Pennsylvania? Who was their leader? Quakers, William Penn
Who founded Maryland? What group came to Maryland for religious freedom? Cecil Calvert (Lord Baltimore), Catholics
What was the Maryland Act of Toleration (1649) and why was it so significant? an act to grant religious freedom to all Christians. It cultivated the first amendment in the bill or rights
Explain what a Restoration Colony was? a restoration colony was 1 of a # of land grants in north America given by king Charles 2 of England in the later half of the 17th century, ostensibly as a reward to his supporters in the Stuart restoration
What is the significance of Charleston S.C. originally being called Charles Town? it was originally named after the king Charles 2 of England
Who was James Oglethorpe? What was his vision for Georgia? What was NOT to be allowed in Georgia initially? a thinker during the enlightenment period. he and a group of charitable investors asked king George for permission to create a utopian experiment for English citizens imprisoned for debt. No elected assembly only 3 major laws
Why did Georgia become a Royal Colony? the utopian experiment failed due to the rules and king George revoked his land
Identify and describe 3 social/economic groups that lived in the southern colonies. 1.Yeoman farmers:ownd farm&worked mainly w/famly labor remain embody ideal Amer. 2.tidewater aristocrats:exponently wealthy white famlys ownd plantation ChesapeakeBay 17s 3.Urban profesionals:artistian workd righton plantaion w/slaves,servants.few lawyers
Identify the Proclamation Line of 1763 and explain its significance in causing conflict between England and the colonies. the Proclamation Line of 1763 was a decree that ban colonists from settling west of Appalachia.causing conflict b/w England&Colonies was that there was colonial bloodshed in 7 Year war b/w French&indians&they wanted to settle in land that they fought for.
What was the Stamp Act? Every legal document had to be written on specially stamped paper, showing proof of payment. Deeds, wills, marriage licenses. Contracts of any sort, were not recognized as legal in a court of law unless they were prepared on this paper.
What happened at the Boston Massacre and how did it create more animosity between England and the colonies? British soldiers opened fire on angry mob, 5 people were killed including Crispus Attucks former slave&others badly injured. created more animosity b/c british had killed american lives&the soldiers whodid it were cleared of all charges of manslaughter.
Who wrote Common Sense? What was the idea of this booklet and how did it affect people's’ attitudes? Thomas Paine wrote “Common Sense.” the idea of the book was to circulate the important arguments of the day and to try and convince the american colonists of the glory of their cause. it
What was the main idea concerning man that is expressed in the Fation of Independence? To what extent is the declaration accusatory? What was the purpose of the declaration? • All men are created equal • the Declaration accused king George of tyranny • the Purpose of the Declaration was to make the thirteen colonies free and independent states
What were strengths of both sides (colonies and England) during the Revolutionary War? Colonies-•Strengths: America was fighting for their rights so they were going to do whatever they could do to win. England-•Strengths: strongest military and well equipped
How were the colonists in one of three groups before the Revolution? Describe each group. Which one was the largest? What did England and the other groups try to do in relation to this group? How? 3 groups of people went into loyalists who weretrue tothe country&army ofEngland Onthe fence were people who didn’t decide or know what todo They were bigest group&patriots believed in what they were doing They fought for rights&gave England what deserved
What was the significance of the Battle of Saratoga? It was significant because it was the turning point of the Revolutionary War. On October 17, 1777, 5,895 british and Hessian troops surrendered their arms.
What were weaknesses of both sides (colonies and England) during the Revolutionary War? Colonies-•Weakness:Americans had much difficulty raising enough funds to purchase basic supplies for their troops, including shoes&blankets.England-•Weakness:british fighting a war far away from home so Military orders, troops&supplies reach destination
Under the Articles of Confederation what was the only branch of government? How many votes were there? ● Under the Articles the only branch of government was the National / Central Government ● Each State had only one vote, irrespective (not taking something into account; regardless of ); of how many delegates were sent.
What were the main limitations of this government? 1.Economic disorganization:-America was struggling economicaly&pay off the debts in its fight independence. 2.Lack central leadership: -No independent judiciary -there was no 1 in charge foreign affair 3.Legislative inefficiencies:-each state had 1vote
Who showed up at the Constitutional Convention (1787) as the most prepared delegate? who presented the Virginia Plan? ● James Madison showed up at the constitutional convention as the most prepared delegate, who presented the Virginia Plan.
Describe the Virginia Plan. lower house would be elected by people&the upper house would be elected by lower house.executive would exist to ensure that will of legislature carried out&would be selected by legislature.created a judiciary&gave executive&some judiciary the power veto
What was the biggest challenge facing the delegates that made agreement between states difficult? Biggest challenge was determining: First, how to allow states to vote on issues in the Congress, equally or by population (proportionally). 2nd, how to count slaves for both representation and taxation. 3rd, how to elect the President and set his term.
What were the 3 branches of government that were created ●Legislative- Makes Laws - two parts: the Senate and the House of Representatives. ●Executive - Carries Out Laws-President, Vice President and Cabinet members. ●Judicial - Evaluates Laws-is made up of the court system
how the legislative branch elected -representatives are elected every two years -Senators are elected every 6 years. To become a Senator a person must be at least 30 years old, have been a US citizen for at least 9 years, and must live in the state they represent.
how the executive branch elected - President ~ Americans vote in a presidential election every 4 years - Vice President ~ chosen by the president - Cabinet members ~ Appointed by the president and confirmed by the senate
how the judicial branch elected appointed by the president and confirmed by the senate
How was the issue of representation settled? The great compromise:legislature have 2 houses The House of Representative larger states by giving more representatives for states that had larger populations.The 2nd house the Senate would give=representation to states giving each state exactly 2 senator
what was the 3/5 compromise reached b/w delegates from S states &those from N states during the 1787 US Constitutional Convention. The debate was over whether&if so how slaves would be counted when determining a state's total population for legislative rep. &taxing purposes.
who opposed the 3/5 compromise and why Delegates from the Northern (Free) states strongly opposed this, arguing that if slaves had no rights to vote (or any other rights of citizenship) then the South should not be given additional representatives in the House.
What is the Electoral College? people rep. states of U.S who formerly cast votes for election president &vice president. The founding fathers feared they couldn’t trust average people to elect president.thought nobody would win president w/o win majority vote. nobody won-house of rep.
federalist ● Federalist: an advocate or supporter of federalism. ● Federalism is a system of government in which entities such as states or provinces share power with a national government
antifederalist ● Anti-federalist: a person who opposed the ratification of the Constitution in 1789 and allied with Thomas Jefferson's Anti-federal Party, which opposed extension of the powers of the federal Government.
What were the Federalist Papers? Who were some leading Federalists? These are a series of 85 letters written to newspapers in 1787-1788 by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay, urging ratification of the Constitution.After a new Constitution, intended to replace the ineffectual Articles of Confederation
What is a system of checks and balances? ● With checks and balances, each of the three branches of government ( Legislative- makes laws, executive- carries out laws, Judicial- evaluates laws) can limit the powers of the others
What are the Bill of Rights? ● Bill of Rights: is the collective name for the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. The antifederalists were big supporters on the bill of rights also known as the 1st 10 amendments
Was it the Federalists or Anti-Federalists who were the biggest proponents of them? Why ● The Antifederalists supported the Bill of Rights as ESSENTIAL. The absence of a Bill of Rights in the original Constitution was seen as a real threat to individual citizens’ liberties. The Federalists saw the Bill of Rights as NOT NECESSARY.
What is the idea of Limited Government? ● In a limited government, the power of the government to intervene in the exercise of civil liberties is restricted by law, usually in a restricted constitution.
What was the greatest challenge to George Washington as the first President? national debt; fighting for independence did not come cheap.
Created by: _LaurenBowers_