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History Quiz 1

chapters 17-20

John D. Rockefeller was an American oil industry tycoon and philanthropist, who is considered to be the wealthiest American of all time by virtually every source, and—largely—the richest person in modern history. Was noted for founding many charitable organizations and being
Standard Oil Company An American oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. Established in 1870 by John D. Rockefeller as a corporation in Ohio, it was the largest oil refiner in the world of its time.
horizontal integration Rockefeller used various schemes to eliminate his competitors. This strategy was when a dominant cooperation would buy or force out most of its competitors.
Monopoly Business is so large it effectively controls the industry.
Trust This gives a person or corporation the legal power to manage another person’s money.
vertical intergation Instead of relying on "middle man" , company owns everything it needs to produce and make their good.
holding company a company created to buy and possess the shares of other companies, which it then controls. Created by Rockefeller
Bessemer Converter a steel-making process, now largely superseded, in which carbon, silicon, and other impurities are removed from molten pig iron by oxidation in a blast of air in a special tilting retort
Andrew Carnegie Scottish American industrialist who led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century. He is often identified as one of the richest people and one of the richest Americans ever.
Carnegie Steel Company By 1900 had became the largest industrial company in the world. Workers worked 24/7. steel producing company primarily created by Andrew Carnegie and several close associates, in order to manage businesses at steel mills in the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania ar
J. Pierpont Morgan and Company The firm is a predecessor of two of the largest banking institutions in the United States and globally, JPMorgan Chase and Morgan Stanley. In 2000, J.P. Morgan & Co. merged with Chase Manhattan Bank to form JPMorgan Chase & Co., one of the largest global
Tariff Tax on imported goods
laissez-faire is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government interference such as regulations, privileges, tariffs, and subsidies.
Railroad Strike Very violent. Revealed how polarized rich vs poor was. Was in 1877 after railroad companies cut wages the 3rd time.
national labor union the first national labor federation in the United States. Founded in 1866 and dissolved in 1873, it paved the way for other organizations, such as the Knights of Labor and the AFL
knights of labor Knights of Labor, was the largest and one of the most important American labor organizations of the 1880s (gilded age). Its most important leader was Terence V. Powderly.
haymarket riot Chicago. grew out of agitation of the goal of 8 hour work days. Two strikers killed.
homestead steel strike 1892. Stalled the industrial Union movement and represented test of strength. Was an industrial lockout and strike which began on June 30, 1892, culminating in a battle between strikers and private security agents on July 6, 1892. 10 killed, dozen wounded
American Federation of Labor (AFL) Federation of many separate labor unions.
Pullman strike 1894. Stalled the industrial union movement and represented test of strength. Occurred because negotiations between the Pullman Palace Car Company and the American Railway Union, which represented the railroad and factory workers who worked at Pullman, fa
textile industry The textile industry or apparel industry is primarily concerned with the design and production of yarn, cloth, clothing, and their distribution.
American Tabaco Company The American Tobacco Company was a tobacco company founded in 1890 by J. B. Duke through a merger between a number of U.S. tobacco manufacturers including Allen and Ginter and Goodwin & Company. Controlled 90% of cigarette production.
redeemers the southern wing of the Bourbon Democrats, the ultra-conservative, far right, pro-business faction in the Democratic Party rooted in white supremacy, who pursued a policy of Redemption B/C they apparently “saved” the south during reconstruction.
crop linen system a credit system that became widely used by cotton farmers in the United States in the South from the 1860s to the 1930s. Sharecroppers and tenant farmers who did not own the land they worked obtained supplies and food on credit from local merchants.
sharecroppers a tenant farmer who gives a part of each crop as rent. Individually operated.
sharetenant one who operates a farm owned by another, pays a share of the crop as rent, and provides labor, power and implements, and usually his share of seed and fertilize.
Mississippi plan devised by the Mississippi legislature to avoid honoring the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments without attracting federal intervention. The plan included a residency length requirement, poll tax, literacy test, and clean criminal record requirement. The
separate but equal racially segregated but ostensibly ensuring equal opportunities to all races. Excuse for segregation/discrimination.
Atlanta compromise struck in 1895 between Booker T. Washington, president of the Tuskegee Institute, and other African-American leaders, and Southern white leaders. The agreement was that Southern blacks would work and submit to white political rule, while Southern whites g
exodusters was a name given to African Americans who migrated from states along the Mississippi River to Kansas in the late nineteenth century, as part of the 1879 movement. It was the first general migration of blacks following the Civil War.
campstock lode The Comstock Lode is a lode of silver ore located under the eastern slope of Mount Davidson, a peak in the Virginia Range in Nevada (then western Utah Territory). It was the first major discovery of silver ore in the United States.
boomtown a town undergoing rapid growth due to sudden prosperity
open range The invention of barbed wire in the 1870s allowed cattle to be confined to designated areas to prevent overgrazing of the range. In Texas and surrounding areas, increased population required ranchers to fence off their individual lands.
indian wars the multiple armed conflicts between European governments and colonists, and later American settlers or the United States government, and the native peoples of North America.
sand creek massacres On November 29, 1864, seven hundred members of the Colorado Territory militia embarked on an attack of Cheyenne and Arapaho Indian villages. The militia was led by U.S. Army Col. John Chivington, a Methodist preacher, as well as a freemason.
ghost dance movement new religious movement incorporated into numerous American Indian belief systems.
great sioux war series of battles and negotiations which occurred between 1876 and 1877 involving the Lakota Sioux and Northern Cheyenne against the United States.
dawes act authorized the President of the United States to survey American Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians.
gilded age the time between the Civil War and World War I during which the U.S. population and economy grew quickly, there was a lot of political corruption and corporate financial misdealings and many wealthy people lived very fancy lives.
• Tenements low cost buildings that housed immigrants and the poor
"new immigrants" pattern of immigrants from southern/eastern europe after 1890
• Nativists the policy of protecting the interests of native-born or established inhabitants against those of immigrants.
• Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) It was one of the most significant restrictions on free immigration in US history, prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers
party bosses leader in a political party who controls votes and dictates appointments.
Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another
The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act is a United States federal law, enacted in 1883, which established that positions within the federal government should be awarded on the basis of merit instead of political affiliation.
• Interstate commerce commission (ICC) - U.S. government's first regulatory agency. The initial purpose of the ICC was to control railroads and their unfair business practices.
mugwump doesnt partake in politics
tariff reform In 1908 Republicans promised to lower unpopular tariffs on U.S. imports, but the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act further divided Republicans
populist party The party's platform, commonly known as the Omaha Platform, called for the abolition of national banks, a graduated income tax, direct election of Senators, civil service reform, a working day of eight hours and Government control of all railroads, telegr
panic of 1893 a serious economic depression in the United States that began in that year.[1] Similar to the Panic of 1873, this panic was marked by the collapse of railroad overbuilding and shaky railroad financing which set off a series of bank failures.
"money question" answer to currency issues, what would win election.
imperialism a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.
yellow journalism journalism that is based upon sensationalism and crude exaggeration.
us maine ship American naval ship that sank in Havana Harbor during the Cuban revolt against Spain, an event that became a major political issue in the United States.
de lome letter a note written by Señor Don Enrique Dupuy de Lôme, the Spanish Ambassador to the United States, to Don José Canelejas, the Foreign Minister of Spain, reveals de Lôme's opinion about the Spanish involvement in Cuba and US President McKinley's diplomacy.
teller amendement amendment to a joint resolution of the United States Congress, enacted on April 20, 1898, in reply to President William McKinley's War Message. It placed a condition on the United States military's presence in Cuba.
• American anti-imperialist league was an organization established on June 15, 1898, to battle the American annexation of the Philippines as an insular area.
open door policy statement of principles initiated by the United States in 1899 and 1900 for the protection of equal privileges among countries trading with China and in support of Chinese territorial and administrative integrity.
roosevelt corallary Convinced that all of Latin America was vulnerable to European attack, President Roosevelt dusted off the Monroe Doctrine and added his own corollary. While the Monroe Doctrine blocked further expansion of Europe in the Western Hemisphere, the Roosevelt C
dollar diplomacy the use of a country's financial power to extend its international influence.
Created by: averymc