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Industrial Era

Significant Terms / Figures / Location

QuestionAnswer
Rural Of or relating to the country
Urban Of or relating to the city
Laissez Faire Concept of government not interfering in the workings of economic market
Natural Resources Materials in nature that can be used for economic gain; U.S. had an abundance which fueled industrialization
Manual Labor Physical work done by people, without machines
Overproduction Problem faced by farmers as a result of mechanized farm machinery
steam engine drill Invented by Edwin Drake; used to drill for oil
Bessemer Process Process of converting iron into steel
Thomas Edison American inventor; over 1,000 patents
Alexander Graham Bell Inventor; credited with patenting first practical telephone
George Pullman Inventor, businessman; created comfortable railroad cars that changed transcontinental travel
Andrew Carengie Irish immigramt, wealthy, influential businessman; made fortune in steel industry
John D. Rockefeller Wealthy, influential businessman; made fortune in oil industry
Horatio Alger American author; his popular 10 cent books (dime novels) featured "rags to riches" themes
Cornelius Vanderbilt Wealthy, influential businessman; made fortune in railroad industry
J.P. Morgan Wealthy, influential businessman; made fortune in banking and railroads
Chinese and Irish Immigrant groups credited with building the Transcontinental Railroad
monopoly The market condition that exists when there is only one seller of a product/service; total control
Interstate Commerce Act First law passed by Congress calling for regulation of railroad practices/abuses
standardized time zones The fast pace of train travel led to scheduling difficulties and collisions, leading to these...
Promontory Point, Utah Meeting point for the completion of the Transcontinental Railroad
Menlo Park, New Jersey Thomas Edison's research labratory
Pullman, Illinois Company town where Pullman Sleeping Cars were manufactured; location of nations first labor strike
skyscrapers/bridges/barbed wire/farm machinery New uses for steel in America during industrial boom
Social Darwinism Theory of natural selection applied to human society; theory favored laissez-faire role of government
Populist Party Significant third party formed by American farmers to force change in Washington
railroad industry #1 customer of steel industry; first industry to be regulated by government
specialization Part of the new, national American economic market due to the railroads; regions specialized in producing certain products
Pittsburgh Specialized in steel manufacturing
Cleveland Home of Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company
Sherman Anti- Trust Act Stated that the creation of monopolies, or trusts was illegal
Native Americans Group most negatively affected by railroads and western expansion
Big Business Term referring to larger companies in size, power, profits and influence.
Social Darwinism Charles Darwin's theory of Survival of the Fittest applied to human society; used by big businessmen to justify success and discourage government intervention.
Gospel of Wealth Essay written by Carnegie; rich have a moral responsibility to give large portions of wealth away.
philanthropist Term refers to a person who donates large sums of money to charitable organizations.
Rags to Riches To rise from meager beginnings to great wealth and success.
Robber baron Negative term for business tycoons in industrial America; greedy, served by own self interest and $.
Captain of Industry Positive take on the role and impact of bug businessmen like Rockefeller and Carnegie
Labor Union Group of workers who organize in an effort to improve working conditions.
Samuel Gompers "Father of Labor Unions"; encouraged many early unions to consolidate and work together.
"Mother" Mary Harris Jones Dedicated her life to improving working conditions for women and children; children's march in front of Teddy Roosevelt
Eugene Debs Radical union leader who favored socialism
Child labor laws, 40 hour work week, health insurance, minimum wage, maternity leave, workers compensation, safety codes, paid vacation, overtime Some of the workers rights earned by early labor union efforts.
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire, NYC Worst workplace tragedy in NYC prior to September 11th. Led to public outcry for worker safety laws.
Socialism Economic theory in which wealth is distributed evenly; favored over capitalism by some radical labor union members.
Violence Result of most early labor union strikes; gave unions a bad reputation and hurt early membership growth.
William McKinley Republican, Goldbug candidate in 1896; Canton, Ohio - front porch campaign
Goldbugs Those who favored gold be the only medal to back up the money supply
Silverites Those who proposed both gold and silver to back up the money supply
William Jennings Bryan Populist / Democratic candidate in 1896; one of the greatest speakers of the 20th century
Created by: smithleslie