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Biochem2 - PCC

Intro to the cell and biochem

Describes how the human system works and how to improve it's function Biochemistry
Provides organizing principles that underlie life Biochemistry
How many milligrams per day of macro elements does our body need? more than 100
How many milligrams per day of micro elements does our body need? Under 100
How many milligrams of trace elements does our body need per day? Under 1
Define kcal The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1 degree C
Is Cal and kcal the same? Yes
Out of cal, Cal and kcal, which is one nutrition labels Cal or kcal
How much energy do we get through the oxidation of proteins? 4 kcal per gram
How much energy do we get through the oxidation of carbohydrates? 4 kcal per gram
How much energy do we get through the oxidation of lipids? 9 kcal per gram
True or False: water is the most abundant substance in the living system? True
Name 5 functions of water 1. Solvent 2. Regulates body temp 3. Transport of nutrients and waste 4. reactant or product in reaction 5. Reaction medium
True or False: water has a low efficient of thermal expansion? True, it won't disturb cells with change of temp
True or False: Water is not amphoteric False, water can act as an acid or base
True or False: Water has a slight tendency to ionize? True
What is the physiological pH 7.4
Plasma membrane Surrounds the cell
Function of plasma membrane Provides protection, nourishment and waste removal
Other word for cytoplasm Cystosol
Functioning for cytoplasm Important for signaling between organelles
Metabolic pathways that occur in cytoplasm of cell 1. Glycolysis 2. Pentose phosphate pathway 3. Glycogenesis and glycogenolysis 4. Fatty acid synthesis
Nucleus Contains DNA
Nucleoplasm Contains all enzymes and minerals necessary for nucleus to function
Mitochondria Powerhouse of the cell. This is where oxygen is used in the cell and most of the metabolic energy is produced through electron transport chain
Which cells DO NOT contain mitochondria Erythrocytes
Rough ER Studded with ribosomes, protein synthesis
Smooth ER Lipid synthesis; more SER found in cells responsible for making hormones and liver cells
Golgi complex "sorting machine" Responsible for sorting newly synthesized
Cis Side of Golgi Complex Greets the proteins
Trans Side of Golgi Complex Sorts the proteins
Post translational modifications Adding sulfate, carbohydrates or lipid structures to proteins
Lysosome The digestive system of the cell. Important for digesting old or injured organelles, regulating calcium and phosphorus homeostasis
Peroxisome Digestive system of the cell. Contains oxidative enzymes.
Catalase Enzymes used to break down hydrogen peroxide formed from, the oxidation reactions to water and oxygen.
Marcoelements Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Calcium, phosphorus, Sulfur, Potassium, Chlorine, Sodium, Magnesium
Microelements Iron, Zinc, Copper, Selenium, Chromium, Iodine, Manganese, Flurine
Ultra Trace Elements Arsenic, Boron, Nickel, Silicon
Created by: LrB