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Biochemistry

Chapter 2 and 3

TermDefinition
Matter Is anything that occupies space and has mass
Mass Is the quantity of matter an object has
Element Is a substance that cannot be broken down chemically into simpler kinds of matter
Atom Is the simplest particle of an element that retains all of the properties of that element
Nucleus Is the central unit that makes up the bulk of the mass of the atom
Proton Is a kind of subatomic particles
Atomic Number Is the number of protons in an atom
Mass Number Is equal to the total number of protons and neutrons of the atom
Electrons Are negatively charged particles
Orbital Is a three-dimensional region around a nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron
Isotopes Atoms of the same element that have a different number of neutrons
Compounds Are made up of atoms of two or more elements in fixed proportions
Chemical Bonds Are the attractive forces that hold atoms together
Covalent Bond Forms when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
Molecule Is the simplest part of substance that retains all of the properties of that substance and can exist in a free state
Ion An atom or molecule with an electric charge
Ionic Bond Is the attraction of the sodium ion and the chloride ion attract each other
Energy Is the ability to do work
Chemical Reaction One or more substances change to produce one or more different substances
Reactant a substance that participates in a chemical reaction
products are shown on the right side
Metabolism the term used to describe all of the chemical reactions that occur in an organism
Activation energy the amount of energy needed to start the reaction
Catalysts reduce the amount of activation energy that is needed for a reaction to take place
Enzyme is a protein or RNA molecule that speeds up metabolic reactions without being permanently changed or destroyed
Redox reactions a oxidation-reduction reaction electron
Oxidation a oxidation-reduction reaction electron
Reaction looses one or more electron making it mostly positive in charge
Reduction Reaction a reactant gains one or more electrons, thus becoming more negative in charge
Polar uneven distribution of charge
Hydrogen Bond the intermolecular force occurring when a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom of one molecule is attracted to two unshared electrons of another molecule
Cohesion the force that holds molecules of a single material together
Adhesion the attractive force between two bodies of different substances that are in contact with each other
capillary the attraction between molecules that results in the rise of a liquid in small tubes
Solution a homogeneous mixture throughout which two or more substances are uniformly dispersed
Solute in a solution, the substance that dissolves in the solvent
solvent in a solution, the substance in which the solute dissolves
concentration the amount of a particular substance in a given quantity of a mixture, solution, or ore
Saturated solution a solution that cannot dissolve any more solute under the given conditions
aqueous solution a solution in which water is the solvent
hydroxide ion the OH- ion
hydronium ion an ion consisting of a proton combined with a molecule of water; H3O+
acid any compound that increases the number of hydronium ions when dissolved in water; acids turn blue litmus paper red and react with bases and some metals to form salts
base any compound that increases the number of hydroxide ions when dissolved in water; bases turn red litmus paper blue and react with acids to form salts
pH scale a range of values that are used to express the acidity or alkalinity (basicity) of a system; each whole number on the scale indicates a tenfold change in acidity
buffer a solution made from a weak acid and its conjugate base that neutralizes small amounts of acids or bases added to it
organic proton a covalently bonded compound that contains carbon, excluding carbonates and oxides
functional group the portion of a molecule that is active in a chemical reaction and that determines the properties of many organic compounds
monomer a simple molecule that can combine with other like or unlike molecules to make a polymer
polymer a large molecule that is formed by more than five monomers, or small units
macromolecule a very large organic molecule, usually a polymer, composed of hundreds or thousands of atoms
condension reaction a chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine to produce water or another simple molecule
hydrolysis a chemical reaction between water and another substance to form two or more new substances; a reaction between water and a salt to create an acid or a base
ATP adenosine triphosphate, an organic molecule that acts as the main energy source for cell processes; composed of a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and three phosphate groups
carbohydrate a class of molecules that includes sugars, starches, and fiber; contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
monosaccharide a simple sugar that is the basic subunit of a carbohydrate
disaccharide a sugar formed from two monosaccharides
polysaccharide one of the carbohydrates made up of long chains of simple sugars; polysaccharides include starch, cellulose, and glycogen
protein an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
amino acid a compound of a class of simple organic compounds that contain a carboxyl group and an amino group and that combine to form proteins
peptide bond the chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid
polypeptide a long chain of several amino acids
enzyme a molecule, either protein or RNA, that acts as a catalyst in biochemical reactions
substrate a part, substance, or element that lies beneath and supports another part, substance, or element; the reactant in reactions catalyzed by enzymes
active site on an enzyme, the site that attaches to a substrate
lipid a fat molecule or a molecule that has similar properties; examples include oils, waxes, and steroids
fatty acid an organic acid that is contained in lipids, such as fats or oils
triglyceride a lipid made of three fatty acid molecules and one glycerol molecule
phospholipid a lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes
wax a type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty-acid chain that is joined to a long alcohol chain
steroid a type of lipid that consists of four carbon rings to which various functional groups are attached and that usually has a physiological action
nucleic acid an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
RNA ribonucleic acid, a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis
nucleotide in a nucleic-acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base
Created by: Andrew_Eith