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AP Human Geography

Cartography The science of using maps.
Concentration The spread of something over a given area.
Connection The relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space.
Contagious diffusion The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population.
Cultural landscape An approach to geography that emphasizes the relationships among social and physical phenomena in a particular study area.
Culture The body of customary beliefs, social reforms, and material traits that together constitute a group’s distinct tradition.
Density The frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area.
Diffusion The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time.
Distance decay The diminished importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from an origin.
Distribution The arrangement of something across Earth’s surface.
Expansion diffusion the spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in an additive process.
Formal region (or uniform region) an area in which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics
Functional region (or nodal region) an area organized around a node or a focal point
Geographic information science (GIScience) the development and analysis of data about Earth acquired by satellite and other electronic information technologies.
Geographic information system (GIS) a computer system that stores, analyzes, organizes, and displays geographic data.
Global Positioning System (GPS) a system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers.
Globalization Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) the time in the zone encompassing the prime meridian, or 0 degrees longitude
Hearth the region from which innovative ideas originate
Hierarchical diffusion the spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places.
International Date Line An arc that for the most part follows 180 degrees longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas.
Location The position of anything on Earth’s surface.
Map A two-dimensional, or flat, representation of Earth’s surface or a portion of it.
Map scale The relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth’s surface.
Mental map A representation of a portion of Earth’s surface based on what an individual knows about a place that contains personal impressions of what is in the place and where the place is located.
Meridian An arc drawn on a map between the north and south poles
Parallel a circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians
Pattern the geometric or regular arrangement of something in a particular area
Place a specific place on Earth, distinguished by a particular characteristic
Projection A system used to transfer locations form Earth’s surface to a flat map.
Region an area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features
Relocation diffusion the spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another
Remote sensing the acquisition of data about Earth’s surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or from other long distance methods.
Scale Generally, the relationship the portion of Earth being studied and the Earth as a whole
Site the physical character of a place.
Situation The location of a place relative to another place.
Space the physical gap or interval between two objects
Space–time compression The reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place as a result of improved communications and transportation systems
Spatial association the relationship between the distribution of one feature and the distribution of another feature
Stimulus diffusion the spread of underlying principle even though a specific characteristic is rejected.
Toponym The name given to a portion of Earth’s surface
Vernacular region (or perceptual region) An area that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity.
Human-Environmental Interaction how people interact with the environment
Movement the mobility of people, goods, and ideas - the patterns and changes in human spatial accessibility and connectivity of places
Physical Geography Topography, climate(Koppen), Flora and Fuana, and Soil
Human Geography Culture, Population, economic, political, urban, and agriculture
Contemporary Mapping The shift from simply a tool that provides location reference to a tool used by geographers to communicate complex geographic phenomena
Mercator Projection a true con-formal cylindrical map projection. particularly useful for navigation since it maintains accurate direction. distortion makes landmasses at/near the poles oversized
North- Polar Projection a map projection in which the plane is the most developable surface
Isoline Map Use of lines of equal value to represent data like elevation, barometric pressure or temperature
Choropleth Map a thematic map in which a variable is depicted with shading patterns or colors
Graduated Symbol Map a thematic map in which the size of the symbol varies in proportion to the intensity of the mapped variable
Dot Map a thematic map in which a dot represents some frequency of the mapped variable
Cartogram a thematic map using relative size of political units to convey a value
Agricultural Density the number of people per square unit of land
Population Density (Arithmetic): the number of things per square unit of distance
Physiological Density: the number of people per square unit of arable land
Spatial Distribution the way something is arranged across Earth's surface
Spatial Interaction The farther away someone is from you, the less likely you are to interact
Created by: Mufctommy



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