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Lesson 23/24/25

4th Grade Social Studies

Civil War a war fought between people of the same country
slavery people working for other people without pay
industrialist people who start new industries
steel a strong metal product made by blasting cold air through melted iron
aluminium light weight metal products made from bauxite ore
oil refining processes in which oil is made into other products such as fuel
air brakes allowed one man to stop an entire train
unions a group of people who gather to improve their pay and working conditions
strike when workers who belong to a union agree to stop working
disaster when something happens that causes great destruction and distress
Who fought in the American Civil War The Northern States and the Southern States
What were the Northern States fighting for? Freedom of all people
What were the Southern States fighting for? The right to keep slaves
Who was the only elected president from Pennsylvania? James Buchanan
Name 3 northern states PA, NY, NJ, CT, MI, MA
Name 3 Southern states FL, GA, VA, NC, SC,
Who helped free the slaves? Lucretia Mott, Harriet Tubman
What PA resources were needed during the Civil War? railroads and farming
what is the nickname of the Battle of Gettysburg? The Bloodiest Battle
How many days did the Battle of Gettysburg last? 3 days in July 1863
Who won the Battle of Gettysburg? The North - it was the turning point of the war
What speech did President Lincoln give at Gettysburg? The Gettysburg Address
What was the Underground Railroad? a network of houses, families, hiding places, escape roads who helped slaves escape to northern states or Canada
When did the Industrial Revolution begin in PA the time of the American Civil War
What was the Industrial Revolution in PA called The Age of Big Business
Which PA city was the steel producing capital of the world? Pittsburgh
William Kelly and Henry Bessemer are credited with inventing what process? turning iron to steel
How did Andrew Carnegie make his fortune? He built steel factories
How did Henry Clay Frick become a business partner of Carnegie? He owned coke factories. Coke fueled the steel mills
What is coke a cheap fuel made from soft coal
Who was the King of Oil? John D. Rockefeller
Charles Hall invented a newer cheaper way to make what metal product aluminum
What did George Westinghouse invent to make trains safer? air brakes
During the Age of Big Business which industries were based in Pittsburgh Steel, Coke, Aluminum, Glass, oil refining
Name 3 problems with working conditions dirty, dangerous, low pay, long shifts, 7 days per week, high food prices
From where did immigrants come to PA? Europe and African Americans from our southern states
Heinz canned and jarred food - Pittsburgh
Woolworth 5 & dime stores
Wanamaker Department stores
Green ice cream soda
Clara Barton founder of Red Cross
Rockefeller oil refining
Carnegie Steel production
Frick Coke factories
Hall Aluminum
Westinghouse Air brakes and safety lights for trains
Kelly and Bessemer process of making steel
Created by: czeponis