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PPR TExES test

QuestionAnswer
What is Piaget's first developmental stage for children? Sensorimotor
What ages are covered by Piaget's first developmental stage for children? Birth to 2 years of age
What is Piaget's second developmental stage for children? Preoperational
What ages are covered by Piaget's second developmental stage for children? 2 to 7 years old
What is Piaget's third developmental stage for children? Concrete operations
What ages are covered by Piaget's third developmental stage for children? 7 to 11 years old
What is Piaget's fourth developmental stage for children? Formal operations
What ages are covered by Piaget's fourth developmental stage for children? 11 to 15 years old
What happens during Piaget's sensorimotor stage of development? Children build their set of concepts through physical interaction with their environment. They do not have the sense of object permanence.
What happens during Piaget's preoperational stage of development? Children operate better in concrete situations. Although they may recognize abstract concepts, they are still unable to fully grasp them and their existence.
What happens during Piaget's concrete operations stage of development? With more physical experiences, children can start to conceptualize, and may be able to solve abstract problems (such as using numbers in math instead of objects).
What happens during Piaget's formal operations stage of development? At this stage, children's cognitive structures are like those of an adult and include conceptual reasoning.
What are the six basic levels of the cognitive domain of Bloom's Taxonomy? (KCAASE) 1. Knowledge 2. Comprehension 3. Application 4. Analysis 5. Synthesis 6. Evaluation
What is the definition of the knowledge level (in the cognitive domain of Bloom's Taxonomy)? This level tests previously learned material and may involve a wide range of materials. It relies heavily on memorization.
What is the definition of the comprehension level (in the cognitive domain of Bloom's Taxonomy)? This level assesses the ability to grasp the meaning of the material learned that may be shown by interpretation and predication.
What is the definition of the application level (in the cognitive domain of Bloom's Taxonomy)? This is the ability to use learned information in new situations. This may be shown in the application of rules, concepts, and theories.
What is the definition of the analysis level (in the cognitive domain of Bloom's Taxonomy)? This level represents the ability to break down material into its parts so that its organization can be looked at. It may include the identification and labeling of its parts, analyzing these parts, or recognizing how they are organized.
What is the definition of the synthesis level (in the cognitive domain of Bloom's Taxonomy)? Putting parts together to form a new whole. It may involve making a speech, a research proposal, or identifying a set of abstractions.
What is the definition of the evaluation level (in the cognitive domain of Bloom's Taxonomy)? This level tests the ability to judge the value of a material for a certain purpose. It may be based on organization, on internal criteria, or on some external criteria; the relevance of its purpose.
What are some terms associated with the knowledge level (in the cognitive domain of Bloom's Taxonomy)? list, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name, who, when and where
What are some terms associated with the comprehension level (in the cognitive domain of Bloom's Taxonomy)? Summarize, describe, interpret, contrast, predict, associate, distinguish, estimate, differentiate, discuss, and extend.
What are some terms associated with the application level (in the cognitive domain of Bloom's Taxonomy)? Apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete, illustrate, show, solve, examine, modify, relate, change, classify, experiment, and discover.
What are some terms associated with the analysis level (in the cognitive domain of Bloom's Taxonomy)? Analyze, separate, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange, divide, compare, select, and infer.
What are some terms associated with the synthesis level (in the cognitive domain of Bloom's Taxonomy)? Combine, modify, rearrange, substitute, plan, create, design, invent, compose, formulate, prepare, generalize, and rewrite.
What are some terms associated with the evaluation level (in the cognitive domain of Bloom's Taxonomy)? Assess, decide, rank, grade, test, measure, recommend, convince, judge, explain, discriminate, support, conclude, compare, and summarize.
What age is considered to be adolescence? It is generally through to extend between 13 and 22 years of age.
What happens to a person's thinking processes during adolescence? They evolve from concrete to formal, resulting in an increased ability for abstract thinking.
What are three things that are usually part of a behavioral objective? 1. Student behavior 2. Conditions of performance 3. Performance criteria
What are three things that are important to include in learner objectives? 1. What is to be learned 2. Be clear and specific 3. Must be able to be assessed
What is the aim of an authentic assessment? Asking students to demonstrate skills and concepts they have learned. It does NOT encourage rote learning and passive test taking.
What are five types of performance samples that can be used in authentic assessments? performance assessment, short investigations, open-response questions, portfolios, and self-assessment
What is needed to an authentic assessment to be successful? Students must know what the teachers expect so teachers must clearly define standards and expectations. Rubrics can be helpful for this.
What are three stages of play in Piaget's theories? 1. Play involving the transformation of actions 2. Symbolic play 3. Playing games with rules
What is one important thing that paraeducators are not allowed to do? They cannot initiate instruction.
What is the definition of constructivism? It is based on the understanding that due to all of our experiences, we construct our own comprehension of the world we live in. Learning is how we adjust our "rules" to include new experiences.
What is the definition of behaviorism? It is where learning is defined as simply the new behavior that we acquire through experiences. It focuses mainly on observable behaviors.
What are the goals of multicultural education? Education that seeks to enrich each student's perspective by valuing pluralism and studying a variety of cultures. Seeks to lessen prejudices and increase tolerance. Aims for a "mixed salad" instead of a "melting pot".
What is operant conditioning It is where some students react positively to certain subjects and why they dislike others due to past experiences with those subjects (they were conditioned by past experience to like or dislike things).
What is a persuasive model social learning theory? It starts with the idea that individuals will pay attention to positive experiences they observe and strive to repeat the same experience themselves.
What is the cognitive view of motivation? This theory believes that behavior is influenced by the way that people think about themselves and the environment which they are in.
What are the first two influences of the cognitive view of motivation? 1. People need to make sense of their experiences 2. Knowing what one's expectations are for completing a task successfully.
What are the last two influences of the cognitive view of motivation? 3. The factors that you believe account for success and failure (education, perseverance, etc.) 4. Your belief about your own ability to solve problems and think critically
When are cooperative arrangements beneficial to students? When students are meant to be working with each other toward a common goal.
Why is it important to activate students' prior knowledge? Students may not be aware that they have valuable prior info if it hasn't been activated properly.
What is Maslow's hierarchy of human needs about? Maslow believed that our most basic needs must be met before we can satisfy higher levels of human potential.
What was Howard Gardner's theory concerned with? Multiple intelligences
List the original 8 intelligences in Howard Gardner's theory. 1. Linguistic 2. Musical 3. Logical-mathematical 4. Spatial 5. Bodily-kinesthetic 6. Naturalistic 7. Interpersonal 8. Intrapersonal (9. Existential)
What two "intelligences" are traditionally emphasized by schools? Linguistic and logical-mathematical
What is the definition of critical thinking? The pursuit of relevant, reasonable, and reliable knowledge about the world that is focused on what one should believe or do.
What is the goal of critical thinking? To develop responsible citizens who contribute to a healthy, productive society and who don't succumb to its temptations.
What is convergent thinking? It represents the analysis or integration of already taught or previous knowledge and leads one to an expected end result or answer.
What is Stage 1 of second language acquisition? Preproduction.
What is involved in the preproduction stage of second language acquisition? Most ELLs will have a limited range of English words but will not speak voluntarily. Observing body language to judge the student's progress is important at this stage.
What is the second stage of second language acquisition? Early production.
What is involved in the early production stage of second language acquisition? The student learns to speak in one or two word phrases. They can use memorized sentences.
What is classical conditioning? Learning through conditioned responses to neutral stimuli.
Who is one researcher famous for studying classical conditioning? Pavlov
How long does it take to earn National Board Certification? Between two and three years.
What year was the Equal Access Act enacted and what does it legislate? It was put into effect in 1984. It allows equal access to extracurricular clubs.
What did Albert Bandura's work with self-efficacy study? How people are more likely to engage in activities they feel they can succeed at.
What are the four components of social learning theory? 1. Attention 2. Retention 3. Motor reproduction 4. Motivation
Who developed the theory of psychosocial development? Erik Erikson
What is the range for stanines? What amount of standard deviation is one stanine equivalent to? Stanines run between 1 and 9. Each stanine is 1/2 of a standard deviation.
What are some typical cognitive skills that 5 year olds should have? They should be able to reproduce letters, shapes and numbers. They should also tell stories and ask meanings of words.
What do summative assessments measure? They measure final results at the end of an instructional unit or term. Examples of summative assessments are teacher-made tests, rating scales, and standardized tests.
What are three common language errors for young children? 1. Overgeneralization 2. Undergeneralization 3. Overregularization
What does the language error named OVERGENERALIZATION mean? Overextending the use of a word by using one label for several objects (such as calling all animals "dogs").
What does the language error named UNDERGENERALIZATION mean? Being too restrictive with the use of a word (not recognizing a banana as a fruit because it isn't round).
What does the language error named OVERREGULARIZATION mean? Incorrectly applying a grammar rule (adding -ed to the end of any verb to state past tense)
What are some words that are commonly used in behavioral objectives? Define, describe, demonstrate, solve
What are some words commonly used in cognitive objectives? Reflect, recognize, comprehend, and understand
What type of theories did Edward Thorndike ascribe to and what big idea did he develop? He was a behaviorist who developed operant conditioning. This includes the law of effect, which explains that people are more likely to choose behavior with enjoyable consequences.
What are the three domains of learning in Bloom's Taxonomy? Cognitive, affective, and psychomotor
What is included in the cognitive domain of Bloom's Taxonomy? The cognitive domain involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills. This includes the recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural patterns, and concepts that serve in the deleopment of intellectual abilities and skills.
What is included in the affective domain of Bloom's Taxonomy? This domain includes the manner in which we deal with things emotionally, such as feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and attitudes.
What is included in the psychomotor domain of Bloom's Taxonomy? It includes physical movement, coordination, and use of the motor-skill areas. Development of these skills requires practice and is measured in terms of speed, precision, distance, procedures or techniques in execution.
What is a schema? How knowledge is organized about specific concepts.
What are the four main types of schema? Person schema, event schema, role schema and self schema
What is the name of a schema that involves an action or behavior? A script.
What type of lighting is most conducive to learning? Natural lighting. But brighter light is more effective than fluorescent light.
What can you put in a constructed response assignment to reduce the influence of the writing style? A checklist of what should appear in the assignment.
What do standardized tests help to assess? Performance
What is the term used to describe the accuracy of an assessment? Validity
What three ways can you use to measure validity? Content, criterion, and construct
What is construct validity associated with? The degree an assessment relates to specific variables.
What is an "ill-defined problem" and what can we do with them in teaching? It has goals that may be unclear, it may be missing some relevant information, and have more than ONE viable solution. (It can still be good to assign these to students, they are more like real-world situations)
What is the mean and standard deviation of a Z-score? Mean = 0 Standard deviation = 1
What is the mean and standard deviation of a T-score? Mean = 50 Standard deviation = 10
What is the mean and standard deviation of a Deviation IQ? Mean = 100 Standard deviation = 15 or 16
What is the mean and standard deviation of a Normal Curve Equivalent? Mean = 50 Standard deviation = 21.06
What is a complex overt response? Being able to carry out complex action patterns.
Name 4 theorists considered to be behaviorists. B.F. Skinner Thorndike Pavlov John Watson
Name some types of informal assessments. Observations Checklists Portfolios Anecdotal records Learning logs & journals
How does inquiry based learning start? Who might help the process? It starts by posing questions, problems, or scenarios - rather than simply presenting established facts or portraying a smooth path to knowledge. The process is often assisted by a facilitator.
What is discovery learning? An inquiry-based, constructivist learning theory that takes place in problem solving situations where the learner draws on his or her own poast experience and existing knowledge to discover facts and relationships and new truths to be learned.
What are three essential components of a measurable learning outcome? 1. Student learning behaviors 2. Appropriate assessment methods 3. Specific student performance criteria/criteria for success
What are four important things to do when writing a measurable learning outcome? 1. Focus on student behavior 2. Use simple, specific action verbs 3. Select appropriate assessment methods 4. State desired performance criteria
What are the 5 major categories within the Affective domain of Bloom's Taxonomy? 1. Receiving phenomena 2. Responding to phenomena 3. Valuing 4. Organization (organizing values into priorities) 5. Internalizing values (characterization)
What are the 7 major categories with the Psychomotor domain of Bloom's Taxonomy? 1. Perception (ability to use sensor cues to guide motor activity) 2. Set (readiness to act) 3. Guided response (includes imitation and trial and error) 4. Mechanism 5. Complex overt response 6. Adaptation 7. Origination
Created by: DocPep614