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Mr. Stickler's Liberty Christian Honors History Unit 1 Test Flashcards 2021

How was maize created? This was bio-engineered by pre-historic peoples living in North America about 7,000 years ago.
What is the significance of plants such as beans, squash, chilies, and maize to understanding the development of the first civilizations in North America? These allowed an agricultural revolution to begin in North America, which allowed tribes to settle in a place for longer periods of time. It also caused tribal populations to grown considerably.
How did the Anasazi tribe respond to the environmental changes that started around 900 C.E.? This tribe built flood-control dams and irrigation canals, built entire cities of multi-story apartment houses into the sides of high cliffs, and they formed larger communities to handle these innovations.
Who founded the tribe that came to be known as the Aztecs? The tribe was founded by a group of Native Americans that left the American Southwest due to environmental changes in the region. They settled in the Valley of Mexico and eventually called themselves this.
What is a "tributary empire"? Subjects rule themselves but they must send goods and labor to the imperial government in exchange for protection and services.
Why did Native Americans in some regions of pre-Columbian North America choose not to farm? They did this because there was an abundance of wild foods available.
Why was the Powhatan Confederacy formed? This was created due to the need for mutual defense as warfare became more common.
What was the "Columbian Exchange"? This was the name given to the trading of people, plants, and animals among Europe, Africa, and North America.
What percent of Native Americans are believed to have died due to European diseases during the 1st century of contact between the two groups? Between 90 and 95% of this group of people died.
List two (2) ways that the American landscape was changed by the introduction of European plants and animals. 1. Imported animals were used to clear trees and undergrowth, which changed the flow of water over the land; 2. Imported plants spread until they choked out indigenous ones.
What people's assistance was critical in the Spanish's successful campaign against the Aztecs? Native American's assistance was critical during this campaign.
What country took over colonial supremacy in the New World after the decline of Spanish power? The Dutch took over after this decline.
How did Native American tribes - such as the Creeks and the Cherokees - cope with increasing intergroup warfare as a result of major changes to tribal economic systems? These tribes formed formal "confederacies" - such as the Creek Confederacy - as a way of coping with European colonizers.
What did Franciscan priests do to Pueblo Indian religious, social, & family structures in the early 1600's? This group "embarked on a wholesale effort to destroy every vestige of the Indians' religion". They also interfered with tribal social and family structures.
What did explorer Henry Hudson's employers favor instead of colonization, leading them to eventually construct a trading post in what is now New Albany, New York? His employers favored building a trading post instead of colonization in order to capitalize on the buying and selling of animal furs - especially beaver furs, which were being used to make felt hats in England.
Who founded Louisiana? Sieur de La Salle founded this area.
Which explorer founded the settlements that would later be called New France? Samuel de Champlain founded these settlements.
What is the oldest city in North America? St. Augustine, Florida is the oldest city.
What was the "encomienda system"? This was a system where Spanish conquistadors were instructed to tell Native Americans they encountered that they were now under the control of the Spanish queen and the Catholic Church. Then they were allowed to (essentially) enslave them.
What does the term "serfs" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "peasants who were bound to a particular estate but were not the personal property of the estate owner & received traditional feudal protections.
Who was Don Juan de Onate? A Spanish conquistador who dealt with Native American resistance to the imposition of Spanish religion and culture with brutality. EX: He ordered 1 foot of every male over 25 yrs. of age be cut off to prevent escape from slavery.
How did the Iroquois tribe deal with "threats to their fur trade" in 1623? The Iroquois attacked their rivals, the Mohicans, which started a bloody war. The Mohicans were driven out of the Hudson River Valley completely by 1627.
What led the Plains Indians to move from an agricultural society to a more nomadic hunting - based society "before 1400"? Climate change (i.e. the "Little Ice Age"). This led to shorter growing seasons, which made their need to hunt for food much greater. This change also increased the number of buffalo, the primary animal that they hunted.
What does the term "subsistence farming" mean, refer to? This term refers to "farming that produces enough food for survival, but no surplus that can be sold".
Why did Louisiana settlers form an alliance with the Choctaw tribe? 1.) There was a critical labor shortage in Louisiana; 2.) Very few Frenchmen wanted to colonize Louisiana; 3.) France had trouble getting supply ships to Louisiana.
What happened to the sailors that Christopher Columbus left behind in Hispaniola and why did this happen? They were all killed because they tried to enslave the Tainos indians.
What was the Treaty of Tordesillas? This document drew a line through South America which divided the continent amongst the Spanish and the Portuguese.
What was Christopher Columbus' opinion of Native Americans that he encountered? He said that they would "make good and intelligent servants".
What does the term "America" mean/ refer to? This term was given to lands that Europeans encountered across the Atlantic after 1492 in honor of Amerigo Vespucci.
About how many Native Americans died from disease after contact with European explorers? At least 65.5 million Native Americans died as a result of this.
What was the Silk Road? This was the name for the overland trade route established by Marco Polo in the late 1200's.
What does the term "New Spain" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the first Spanish empire in the Americas.
What does the term "Columbian Exchange" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the "exchange of plants, animals, and diseases that occurred after the first European contact with the Americas.
What does the term "mestizo" mean/ refer to? This term refers to people of mixed African, European, and Indian descent.
List three (3) examples of things that were transferred from Europe to the Americas in the Columbian Exchange. Wheat, chickens, and diseases.
List three (3) examples of things that were transferred from the Americas to Europe in the Columbian Exchange. Corn, potatoes, and turkeys.
What does the term "conquistadors" mean/ refer to? This was the term given to early Spanish conquerors of Mexico and Peru.
List three (3) things that Native American tribes had in common in the 1400's. 1.) Saw time as circular; 2.) Honored shamans who were expected to keep tribal stories alive; 3.) Saw the community as the focus of life and labor.
When did the "Little Ice Age" begin and end? It began around 1350 and ended around 1800.
What effect did the "Little Ice Age" have on the Cahokia tribe? 1.) The tribe could not farm as much; 2.) The power of priests and kings fell because it was believed that they had power over the sun and seasons.
List three (3) of the five (5) tribes that were part of the Iroquois Confederacy. Oneida, Mohawk, Onandagas, Cayugas, and Senecas.
What was the "Reconquista"? This was the term for the long struggle during which Spanish Christians reconquered the Iberian Peninsula from Muslim occupiers.
How were West Africans able to fight off early Portuguese explorers who tried to land on their shores? They had small canoes that were much more maneuverable, which allowed them to sail to places where the Portuguese ships could not reach.
What does the term "Beringia" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the name of the land bridge that existed in the Bering Sea. It is believed that people crossed it from Siberia to North America tens of thousands of years ago.
What is the importance of Chaco Canyon? This was the name of the central settlement of the Anasazi Indians.
What did satellite images show about Chaco Canyon in the 1970's? These showed that a large network or roads - invisible to the naked eye - existed that connected other Anasazi settlements to Chaco Canyon.
What is one (1) theory about what happened to the Anasazi Indians? One theory is that the tribe fell victim to internal violence with mass killings and simply disappeared after that occurred.
List the names of the three (3) Mound Building Indians that we learned about during this unit. 1. Adena. 2. Mississippian. 3. Hopewell.
Which mound building tribe created small mounds that were used to bury tribal leaders? The Adena Indians created these kinds of mounds.
What was different about the mounds built by the Mississippian Mound Building Indians? This group of mound - building Indians built large, flat - topped, rectangular mounds. Tribal leaders and other tribal elites lived on top of these mounds.
What helped to speed up the decline of the Mississippian Indian tribes? European diseases sped up this tribe's decline.
How did Mississippian Indian leaders keep the peace among the 50,000 or more tribe members? These Indians used large scale, continuous work projects to keep their population under control.
What kinds of things did the Hopewell Indians eat? This tribe of mound building Indians ate fish, birds, raccoons, rabbits, squirrels, deer, nuts, berries, and corn (once they learned how to grow it).
What does the term "3 sisters farming" refer to? This refers to the planting of corn, squash, and beans together for their mutual benefits where weed control, nitrogen enrichment of the soil, and maintaining a solid root structure for the taller corn.
What did Dr. Cyrus Thomas find related to the Shawnee Indians? He found that the Shawnee used stone "box graves" of a similar kind to those found during archaeological digs in Indian mounds, linking them to known Native American tribes.
Who was Martin Luther? He was the person who wrote the "Ninety - Five Theses" and nailed them to the door of a Catholic Church in Wittenberg, Germany, beginning the Protestant Reformation.
Who conquered the Aztecs? Hernan Cortes did this.
Who defeated the Incas? Francisco Pizarro and his soldiers did this.
List two (2) things that led to the defeat of the Aztecs and Incas. 1. European diseases. 2. Overwhelming firepower with weapons that were much more advanced than those of the Indians.
What does the term "repartimiento" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a policy that required the people of the Americas to work in service of a person of Spanish descent who, in return, would teach them the core of Christianity".
Who was Bartolome de Las Casas? He was a Spanish person who gave up lands he had previously been awarded in Cuba and began documenting the conditions and mistreatment of Native Americans under the "encomienda" system.
Who was Juan Ponce de Leon? He was the first European to explore the land that is now Florida. He was also searching for the Fountain of Youth.
What were Marcos de Niza and Esteban searching for when they set out to explore North America? They were searching for the Seven Cities of Cibola - a legendary group of cities that were supposedly founded by Spanish bishops the fled their country.
What did Hernando de Soto discover that no other European explorer had seen before? He discovered the Mississippi River, although he did not "explore" much of it - he simply crossed it with his soldiers but was the first European to do so.
What was the Powhatan Confederacy? This was a group of 30 Algonquin speaking tribes that provided mutual military support and paid taxes to Powhatan in the form of food, pelts, copper, and pearls.
Created by: sticklerpjpII
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