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Mr. Stickler's Liberty Christian Honors History Unit 1 Test Flashcards 2018

How was maize created? This was bio-engineered by pre-historic peoples living in North America about 7,000 years ago.
What is the significance of plants such as beans, squash, chilies, and maize to understanding the development of the first civilizations in North America? These allowed an agricultural revolution to begin in North America, which allowed tribes to settle in a place for longer periods of time. It also caused tribal populations to grown considerably.
Why is it important to understand the Pre-Columbian history of North America? Understanding this era of North American history helps explain why European crops, animals, and people were able to "transplant" themselves on this continent so easily.
How did the Anasazi tribe respond to the environmental changes that started around 900 C.E.? This tribe built flood-control dams and irrigation canals, built entire cities of multi-story apartment houses into the sides of high cliffs, and they formed larger communities to handle these innovations.
Who founded the tribe that came to be known as the Aztecs? The tribe was founded by a group of Native Americans that left the American Southwest due to environmental changes in the region. They settled in the Valley of Mexico and eventually called themselves this.
What is a "tributary empire"? In this situation, subjects rule themselves but they must send goods and labor to the imperial government in exchange for protection and services.
What caused the Anasazi to abandon their cities during the last quarter of the 13th century? A long string of summer droughts and bitterly cold winters forced this to happen.
Why did Native Americans in some regions of pre-Columbian North America refrain from practicing any kind of agriculture? These people didn't need to practice this because there was an abundance of wild foods available.
Why was the Powhatan Confederacy formed? This was created due to the need for mutual defense as warfare became more common.
What was the "Columbian Exchange"? This was the name given to the trading of people, plants, and animals among Europe, Africa, and North America.
What percent of Native Americans are believed to have died due to European diseases during the 1st century of contact between the two groups? Between 90 and 95% of this group of people died.
List two (2) ways that the American landscape was changed by the introduction of European plants and animals. 1. Imported animals were used to clear trees and undergrowth, which changed the flow of water over the land; 2. Imported plants spread until they choked out indigenous ones.
What people's assistance was critical in the Spanish's successful campaign against the Aztecs? Native American's assistance was critical during this campaign.
What is the difference between primary and secondary sources in history? Primary sources were written or created during the period that you are studying. Secondary sources were created after the era you are studying. (Class notes.)
What does the term "privateer" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "legal pirates" - ship's captains who were given authority by the king or queen of their country to capture ships from other countries & loot them. (Class notes.)
What event led to the decline of Spanish supremacy where colonization was concerned? The Spanish Armada was driven away from the shores of England by Queen Elizabeth's "smaller, more maneuverable British defense ships". A storm then scattered the Spanish ships, resulting in a naval defeat. (Textbook, Pg. 30 & Class notes.)
What country took over colonial supremacy in the New World after the decline of Spanish power? The Dutch took over after this decline. (Textbook, Pg. 31 & Class notes.)
How did Native American tribes - such as the Creeks and the Cherokees - cope with increasing intergroup warfare as a result of major changes to tribal economic systems? These tribes formed formal "confederacies" - such as the Creek Confederacy - as a way of coping with European colonizers.
What was one (1) thing that French financial minister Jean Baptiste Colbert accomplished while he held that office? He created the "Company of the West", to try and make the colony of New France more efficient and increase its contribution to the French empire at large.
What state was named after King Louis XIV of France? Louisiana was named after him.
What did Franciscan priests do to Pueblo Indian religious, social, & family structures in the early 1600's? This group "embarked on a wholesale effort to destroy every vestige of the Indians' religion". They also interfered with tribal social and family structures. (SQR2; Tom L. & Emma W.)
What did explorer Henry Hudson's employers favor instead of colonization, leading them to eventually construct a trading post in what is now New Albany, New York? His employers favored building a trading post instead of colonization in order to capitalize on the buying and selling of animal furs - especially beaver furs, which were being used to make felt hats in England. (Textbook, Pgs. 31 & 32)
Who was Sir Francis Drake? He was a "privateer" who was commissioned by Queen Elizabeth to harass French ships. He was also a Vice Admiral in command of the English fleet in the defeat of the Spanish Armada (1588).
What two (2) things do you need to know before choosing one (1) of the 10 Themes of Social Studies to interpret a historical event? 1.) Enough details about the event to be able to summarize it in your own words to someone else; 2.) All of the people ("historical actors") involved in the event and what they did or prevented. (Class notes.)
What is one (1) way that the 10 Themes of Social Studies are used by social scientists (i.e. economists, psychologists, historians, political scientists, & sociologists)? One (1) way that the 10 Themes are used by social scientists is to provide a type of "common language" that they can use to explain their interpretation of events to each other. (Class notes.)
What do you need to do before choosing one (1) of the 10 Themes of Social Studies to interpret a picture, statue, memorial, or other piece of art? To do this, you need to examine all of the details - especially in paintings and drawings - before choosing one (1) of the 10 Themes of Social Studies. (Class notes.)
Who founded Louisiana? Sieur de La Salle founded this area. (txtbook, pg. 35)
What does the term "burghers" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "males in New Amsterdam who were not Dutch West India Company officials, but who governed civic affairs through their political influence". (Pg. 32)
Which explorer founded the settlements that would later be called New France? Samuel de Champlain founded these settlements.
What was the result of the "Felt Hat Fad" that swept through France, the Netherlands, Great Britain, and Russia? The result of this was over-trapping of deer and beaver in the "Old World", which led almost the entire population of these animals to be wiped out in North America, especially Canada. (Pg. 33)
What is the oldest city in North America? St. Augustine, Florida is the oldest city. (Pg. 33)
Who discovered St. Augustine, Fl.? Pedro Aviles built this city in 1565. (Pg. 33)
What were "patroonships"? This was the name of large estates granted to New Netherland's company stockholders who were willing to bring 50 colonists to New Netherland at their own expense. (Pg. 32)
Who negotiated a lease for "the entire island of Manhattan from the Manhates Indians" in 1626? Peter Minuit negotiated this lease. (Pg. 32)
What was the "encomienda system"? This was a system where Spanish conquistadors were instructed to tell Native Americans they encountered that they were now under the control of the Spanish queen and the Catholic Church. Then they were allowed to (essentially) enslave them. (Pg. 31)
What does the term "serfs" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "peasants who were bound to a particular estate but were not the personal property of the estate owner & received traditional feudal protections. (Pg. 31)
What does the term "caddoan" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a family of languages spoken by several groups of Plains Indians". (Pg. 39)
What does the term "ascetic" mean/ refer to? This term means "practicing severe abstinence or self-denial, generally in pursuit of spiritual awareness. (Pg. 36)
Who was Don Juan de Onate? A Spanish conquistador who dealt with Native American resistance to the imposition of Spanish religion and culture with brutality. EX: He ordered 1 foot of every male over 25 yrs. of age be cut off to prevent escape from slavery. (Pg. 36)
How did the Iroquois tribe deal with "threats to their fur trade" in 1623? The Iroquois attacked their rivals, the Mohicans, which started a bloody war. The Mohicans were driven out of the Hudson River Valley completely by 1627. (Pg. 38)
What led the Plains Indians to move from an agricultural society to a more nomadic hunting - based society "before 1400"? Climate change. This resulted in shorter growing seasons, which made their need to hunt for food much greater. This change also increased the number of buffalo, the primary animal that they hunted. (Pg. 39)
What does the term "subsistence farming" mean, refer to? This term refers to "farming that produces enough food for survival, but no surplus that can be sold". (Pg. 41)
Why did Louisiana settlers form an alliance with the Choctaw tribe? 1.) There was a critical labor shortage in Louisiana; 2.) Very few Frenchmen wanted to colonize Louisiana; 3.) France had trouble getting supply ships to Louisiana.
Created by: sticklerpjpII