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L29 - Protein Synth

USCSOM: Biochemistry: L29 Protein Synthesis I

What enzyme joins amino acids to the correct tRNA? aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetases
What end of the tRNA does the amino acid join to? 3' or 5' 3'
What kind of linkage joins the amino acid to the tRNA molecule? ester
What stop codon can sometimes specify seleno cysteine? UGA
What AA is sometimes called the 21st AA? selenocysteine
What special sequence requires a stem-loop forming sequence downstream of a UGA codon? Selenocysteine Insertion Sequence
What is the number of small subunits for higher level organisms? 40S
What is the first codon used in most protein synthesis? AUG
What AA does AUG code for? Met
What is eIF2? Function? eukaryotic initiation factor 2; binds tRNAiMet to small subunit
What is the "Kozak" consesus? PuPyPyAUGG; favorable start codon
What does eIF4 do? caps the 5' end
What is the Shine-Dalgarno sequence? upstream sequence to a start codon that can base pair to 3' end of 16S RNA
What is the P-site? peptide chain bound to the last tRNA
WHat is the A-Site? aminoacyl-tRNA
What two things are required for binding an incoming charged tRNA? hydrolysis of GTP and elongation factors
What is peptide bond formation catalyzed by? 28S rRNA
What two things are required for the A-site to move to the P-site? GTP hydrolysis and EF2
How does the peptide chain terminate in the P-site? stop codons, special release factors bind
From what end to what end is the mRNA read? 5' to 3'
From what end to what end is the protein synthesized? from amino to carboxyl end
Peptidyl transferase reside on what rRNA? 28S
What is the term for multiple ribosomes working on a single mRNA? polysomes
What are the 2 times of chaperones? Hsp 60 and Hsp 70
What are function of Hsp 70's? BiP - major ER chaperone
What is another name of Hsp 60? chaperonins; in mitochondrial matrix; example is GroEL
What is the chaperone mechanism? bind and release hydrophobic regions until all are buried inside of the protein
What inhibits pro and eukaryote protein synthesis? puromycin
What inhibits peptidyl transferase in eukaryotes? cycloheximidine
What inihbits protein synthesis initiation and causes misreading in prokaryotes? Streptomycin
What inhibits binding of tRNA to 30s subunit? tetracycline
What inhibits peptidyl transferase in 50s subunits in prokaryotes? chloramphenicol
What binds to 50s subunits and inhibits translocation in prokaryotes? erythromycin
Created by: jlellerm