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Democracy A system of government in which people freely choose in elections who will govern them; principles and ideals of such a government, including free speech and the rule of law
Direct democracy A system in which citizens vote directly on every issue
Representative democracy A system in which citizens elect a politician in which then make decisions for them
Civil servant Someone who works for a government department
Pressure group (interest groups) Organized groups of individuals with common interests and concerns who attempt to pressure political decision makers
Lobbyist A person hired to represent the interests of pressure groups by influencing policy decision makers in the group's favour
Bureaucrats Government officials and administrators
Public service The government administration
Brand recognition Awareness by the general public of characteristics associated with a particular product, business or person (in the case of politics)
Spin doctors People who publicize, in a positive way, the words and actions of politicians
Civil disobedience The act of internationally breaking the law while protesting against the laws one considers unjust
Apartheid An official policy of racial segregation involving political, legal, and economic discrimmination against non-whites
Ideology Political and social principles or beliefs
Socialism A political and economic system in which the means of production and distribution in a country are publically owned and controlled for the benefit of all members of society
Liberalism A political philosophy supporting individual freedoms and governmental protection of civil liberties
Conservatism A political philosophy supporting traditional values and institutions and opposing sudden change
Fiscal Pertaining to money issues
Totalitarian A form of government that uses intimidation, violence, and propaganda to rule aspects of social and political life of it's citizens
Bourgeoisie The ruling of middle class
Proletariat The workers of the lower class
Authoritarian A form of government in which one individual or small group holds all the power and directs the lives of citizens
Communism A social and economic ideology that property, productions, and distribution of goods and services should be owned by the public, and that the labour force should be organized for the benefit of all members of society
Fascism An authotarian system of government that excercies complete power, suppresses opposition, often through the use of force, and encourages nationalism and racism
Political spectrum A linear visual used to illustrate political ideologies from left to right
Quebec sovereignety A movement advocating that Quebec separate from the rest of Canada and become a country of its own
Libertarianism A political ideology that supports maximum individual freddom and minimal government involvement in the lives of it's citizens
Party platform A list of priorities and a plan for governing published by a political party
Non-governmental organizations (NGO) Local, national, or international groups that work independently of governments on issues such as health, human rights, or the environment
Patronage A favour, often a government position, given in return for political support
Populism A political movement that advocates the interests of ordinary people
Elite A group of people who hold power
Polarize To go in opposite directions
Partisan Loyal to a party or cause
Senate The second legislative body in parliament consisting of appointed members whose role is to give "sober second thought" towards the passing of bills
Cabinet The group of ministers who decide government policy; members are chosen by the prime minister; each minister has a responsibility for a particular department
House of commons The first legislative body of parliament whose members are elected
Ad valorem tax A tax that is proportional to the value of goods
Excise tax An added tax on certain goods produced or sold in the country; for example, alcohol, gas, tobacco
Surplus The amount of money remaining when a government takes in more than it spends
Deficit The amount of money a government owes when it takes in less money than it spends
Office of the prime minister (PMO) The prime minister's political advisors and staff
Privy council office (PCO) The office that organizes the work of the cabinet
Cabinet solidarity The custom that cabinet members must not show disagreement with government policies
Order-in-council An order signed by the governor general (or the lieutenant-governor in the provinces) on the advice of the prime minister (or the premier in provinces) and cabinet; allows laws and regulations to be passed without a parliamentary vote
Free vote Members voting according to their own conscience
Royal assent The final stage a bill must complete before it is passed into law, in which the governor-general (or the lieutenant-governor in the provinces) signs or grants approval for the bill
Lieutenant-governor The provincial representative of the crown appointed by the governor-general
Party whip A member of the legislature assigned with the specific role of ensuring all members of his or her party are present in the legislature to support party interests
Party discipline All party members voting the same way, as one voice
Back benches Members of a legislature who are not cabinet members, party leaders, or opposition critics
Private members bill A bill introduced into the legislature by a member of the legislature who is not a member of the cabinet
Majority government A government in which the ruling party has more than half the total number of seats in the legislature
Minority government A government in which the ruling party has half the total number of seats in the legislature
Status quo The existing order of things
Coalition A formal alliance of political parties
Proroguing parliament To suspend parliament for a period of time upon the prime ministers request to the governor-general
Dissolving parliament To call an end to a sitting of parliament at the request of the prime minister (or premier); followed by a general election; can be caused by a vote of non-confidence or when prime ministers wishes to call an election
Consituent A voter in a riding
Riding (electoral distrcit, consituency) A region where a party representative runs; 100,000 people on average in a riding; 308 ridings in Canada
Referendum A direct vote in which everyone is either asked to either accept or reject a proposal
Chief electoral officer An independent officer of parliament responsible for federal elections
Voter apathy Reluctance or lack of interest in voting
Nomination Choosing a candidate to run for office
Enumeration Process of compiling voters
Balloting Voting
Tabulating Counting votes
Pollsters People who conduct public opinion polls
Polling stations Locations where citizens in a riding vote
Advance polls Locations where people can vote in advance of election day
Voters list A list of people eligible to vote
Electoral officers -elections canada- Officials who count the votes
By-election An election held in a riding to fill a vacancy
First-past-the-post (FPTP) An electoral system in which the candidate who has more votes than any other wins
Single-transferrable-vote (STV) An electoral system in which parties gain seats by the proportion of votes won in large electoral districts
Bicameral (2) Two branches of chambers
Unicameral One legislative chamber
Constitutional monarchy A country that has a monarch as the head of state
Political spectrum and ideologies I---radical------liberal-----conservative---I
Royalists Wanted to keep monarchy
Grandists (wanted to follow england) wanted the king as a figurehead, and make him follow the constitution; the king would serve parliament
Jacobin wanted to get rid of the king
mountin really wanted to get rid of the king
left wing thinking - believes that societies' main goal is to become more equal: wealth distribution - believes in more taxation - believes in social services: education, welfare, health care - believes in pro-government
right wing thinking - believes that societies' main goal is freedom: fewer laws - believes in less taxation - wants more "self made": people earning their own worth - believe that welfare state= laziness - less government
Voltaire created the idea of "freedom of speech"
Montesquieu a political philosopher and created the foudnations of the canadian government: checks and balances= a system wwhere the governments have checks and are balanced; which led to the three branches of government
legislature - make laws (legislations) - 2 houses (bicameral) > upper: the senate > lower: house of commons
executive -enforce laws -prime minister > cabinet
judicial - interpret the law - courts >supreme >federal >provincial
three principle disobediences 1. should not involve violence 2. should be directed against laws that are seriously harmful 3. requires taking responsibility for one's actions; willingness to fail punishment shows the strength of one's beliefs
purpose of government - to spend our money... - to organize societ for common action so that the needs of every individual can be met
Gov. economic needs - food - shelter - employment - trade
Gov. social needs - health care - welfare - education
Gov. legal needs - law and order - national defence
freedom beliefs belief that the rights of each individual in society are primary purpose
euqality beliefs belief that individuals in society should be treated in the same way
political ideologies "Spectrum" (left wing) communism ----- socialism --- liberalism --- (centre) -----conservatism ----- fascism (right wing)
socialism gov. should control major parts of the economy & major industries
totalitarian - total control - governments are authoritarian - opposed to democracy - control every aspect
communism - government support a classless society and maintain their power through propaganda, secret police, and government control
fascism - about the importance of state and the responsibility of those who serve it - governments emphasize nationalism and militarism
political parties - dervie from their beliefs from basic ideologies - federal and provincial parties have the same name
Parties in Canada -liberal - conservative - NDP - bloc quebecois - green party
parties in BC - NDP - liberal - green - conservative
the rule of law - everyone is subject to the law - no one is above the law - courts maintain rule of law - judges of the court are independent of the political process
common law judgements based on previous decision or precendents
statute law laws passed by federal, provincial, or local levels of government
civil code system used in quebec only; originated in france
law in canada (2): criminal law - federal responsibility - same throughout canada - violation of criminal law is an offence to the state
law in canada (2): civil law - responsibility is shared between the levels of government - concerns itself with property and civil rights - deals with matters relating to the individual - quebec has its own - civil code
public law deals with matters between the government and the citizen
private law concerns disputes with the individuals
what is a session? a session is a meeting or series of connected meetings devoted to a single order of business, program, or agenda
Created by: jessjeanarnold
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