Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Insulin

QuestionAnswer
What effect does insulin have on endothelial tissue? Regulation of the secretion of the vasodilator nitric oxide and the vasoconstrictor Endothelin-1. Nitric oxide stimulates vasodilation and increased blood flow to the target tissues. It also inhibits pathways in the inflammation cascade
What effect does insulin have on the liver? It increases uptake of amino acid, activates glycogen synthase, inhibits GNG enzymes and decreases uptake of substrates. (Insulin also has no effect on the GLUT transporters in the liver)
What effect does insulin have on adipose tissue? It promotes leptin secretion, translocates GLUT 4, activates lipoprotein lipase, stores excess glucose as fat and inhibits lipolysis.
What effect does insulin have on muscle tissue? Activates glycogen synthase, increases uptake of BCAA, stimulates protein synthesis, translocates GLUT 4 and reduces loss of amino acids from muscle
What happens in the endothelium without insulin? Less vasodilation and slower movement of glucose to target tissues. CRP and the inflammation pathways both increase too
What happens in the liver without insulin? Amini acid uptake is decreased, glycogen is broken down (& glycogen synthase isn't activated), glucagon elevates and PEPCK expression is increased. GNG occurs.
What happens in the adipose tissue without insulin? Leptin is not secreted, GLUT 4 isn't translocated therefore glucose uptake & storage doesn't occur. LPL is not activated (lipoproteins are not broken down). There is also increased lipolysis and no lipogenesis.
What happens in the muscle tissue without insulin? Glycogen synthase is not activated (&and glycogen is not made). There is decreased uptake of BCAA, decreased protein synthesis, increased loss of amino acids and GLUT 4 is not translocated (Glucose is not take up)
What are some factors that lead to insulin resistance? Inflammatory mediators, overabundance of adipose tissue, lipid deposits in non-adipose tissue
What is the effect of insulin resistance on the pancreas? Hyperglycaemia is constantly stimulating cells to produce more insulin; this results in hyperinsulinaemia followed by insulin deficiency (as a result of beta-cell exhaustion)
What are incretins? Proteins/hormones released into circulation after minutes of eating and may continue to be released for up to 3 hours. They stimulate a decrease in blood glucose, slow the gastric emptying and inhibit glucagon release.
What are the three stages of insulin release? Cephalic, secretion 1 and secretion 2.
What stage of insulin release is often inhibited in T2DM? Secretion 2
Created by: KatApple