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Starvation & stress

Muscle protein is spared in ___________. Starvation
Muscle protein is used as an energy source in __________. Stress
What is the main fuel the brain is using after 40 days of no food? Ketone bodies
Insulin is present in starvation. (T or F) False
Ketone bodies are made from... Excess Acetyl coA
What hormones are responsible for stimulating lipolysis? Catecholamines & glucagon
What are the 2 phases that occur after injury? Ebb & flow
What are the main hormones involved in the stress response? Cortisol, epinephrine, glucagon (& insulin- for some tissues only)
What does cortisol bring about in the stress response? increases PEPCK expression so that increased GNG can occur
What does glucagon do in the stress response? Causes increased GNG to occur (faster than cortisol does)
What does epinephrine do in the stress response? Causes a cascade of reactions that increases lipolysis
What do the cytokines do during stress response? Increase muscle breakdown, induce GNG and increase the livers' uptake of amino acids
Why does selective insulin resistance occur during stress? Selective insulin resistance occurs in the muscle, adipocytes and the liver as insulin needs to be available to act on other cells that are working to heal the damage.
What are the main features of CHO metabolism during stress? Production of glucose (GNG), uptake and oxidation (glycolysis, TCA, ETC) are all higher than normal and not suppressed
What are the main features of fat metabolism during stress? Increased lipolysis due to insulin resistance glucagon and the adrenergic stimulation of lipolysis.
What are the main features of protein metabolism during stress? Increased protein catabolism & unavoidable muscle wastage
What is the difference between a positive and negative acute phase protein? Positive acute phase proteins are expressed more in times of stress; negative acute phase proteins are lost in the plasma AND production is decreased to allow spare amino acids for positive APP synthesis
Name some positive acute phase proteins CRP, Ferritin, Hepacidin, Ceruloplasmin
Name some negative acute phase proteins Albumin, pre-albumin, retinol binding protein (RBP), transferrin
What is Cysteine used for? Metallothionen synthesis and glutathione synthesis.
What minerals decrease in the plasma during stress? Iron & Zinc
What contributes to the hypermetabolism of stress? Wound healing, increased lymphocyte activity, reduced appetite, increased activities of glucagon, epinephrine & cortisol, thermogenisis involved in maintaining a fever, thermic effect of accelerated protein breakdown
What are the released amino acids used for? GNG and manufacturing of acute phase proteins
Created by: KatApple