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Inflammation & n-3FA

Name the substrates for eicosanoid synthesis Arachidonic Acid and Eicosapentaenoic Acid
What are the 4 main sub-groups of eicosanoids? Leukotrienes, Thromboxanes, Prostacyclins, Prostaglandins
What are Toll Like Receptors? Primary sensors of the innate immune system
Where are Leukotrienes synthesized and what is their function? Leukocytes - Inflammation inducer, chemotaxis & adherance inducer
Where are Thromboxanes synthesized and what is their function? Platelets- stimulates platelet aggregation/thrombosis
Where are Prostacyclins synthesized and what is their function? Endothelial cells of blood vessels- antithrombotic, relaxes arterial wall
Where are Prostaglandins synthesized and what is their function? Epithelial cells of stomach wall- helps regulate stomach acid secretion
What is the difference between eicosanoids synthesised by n-6 and n-3 fatty acids The ones synthesised from n-3 have a lesser inflammatory response
How do n-3 fatty acids help with inflammation? (5) 1. decrease production of AA derived eicosanoids 2. increase production of EPA derived eicosanoids 3. Increase production of resolvins 4. Decrease generation of inflammatory cytokines 5. Decrease leukocyte chemotaxis and generation of ROS
What are resolvins and what do they do? They are endogenous mediators synthesised from n-3 PUFAs that promote active resolution of inflammation. They reduce neutrophil infiltration and inflammatory cytokines
Name some dietary sources of ALA Oils (flaxseed & walnut), walnuts, plant foods rich in polyphenols
Name some dietary sources of EPA/DHA Fatty fish & fish oil
What are Eicosanoids and what do they do? Short lived hormones synthesised from 20C fatty acids that bring about inflammatory changes
What are cytokines? Small proteins produced from many cell types that act as signals for other cells
What are the main pro-inflammatory cytokines? Interferon , IL-6, IL-1 and TNF
What are the essential fatty acids and why are these essential? Linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). Humans can't synthesise the original double bonds in them.
What is cyclooxygenase (COX)? The enzyme responsible for making eicosanoids
What is the difference between COX1 and COX2? COX1 is expressed continually (but at very low levels), COX2 is only expressed when there is an insult/injury
What are the major nutritional issues associated with NSAID use? Stomach ulceration/bleeding, clots/thrombosis
What are the major nutritional issues associated with glucocorticoid use? increased fat mass, increased muscle catabolism, decreased insulin sensitivity
Created by: KatApple