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Race Relations

CRM Protest Methods in the 60s - Freedom Marches

Where were the three Freedom Marches? Birmingham, Washington and Selma.
BIRMINGHAM - When did King decide to use the tactic of larch marches in Birmingham? 1963
BIRMINGHAM - What state is Birmingham in? Alabama.
BIRMINGHAM - Why did King choose Birmingham? Because of its reputation for racism (it had even banned a book which showed black and white rabbits), and because the town's police chief 'Bull' Connor was known to be hot-headed.
BIRMINGHAM - What did King call Birmingham? 'the most segregated city in America'
BIRMINGHAM - What did King demand in Birmingham? The desegregation of eating places and the employment of black sales staff.
BIRMINGHAM - What did King insist on (as always)? Non-violence
BIRMINGHAM - What was his campaign at Birmingham named? 'Project C' - and the 'C' stood for confrontation.
BIRMINGHAM - What did the demonstrations begin with? Sit-is at lunch counters in downtown stores and with a succession of marches, during one of which King was arrested.
BIRMINGHAM - Actually, what was initial support for King at Birmingham? Poor
BIRMINGHAM - As a result of initial support for King at Birmingham being poor, what did he do? On 3rd May 1963 he recruited a thousand school children to join one of the marches.
BIRMINGHAM - As expected what happened as a result of the march (that King recruited a thousand school children to join)? The police attacked with water hoses, dogs and batons.
BIRMINGHAM - Due to the police attacking the march involving a thousand school children recruited by King with water hoses, dogs and batons, what happened? There was a media outcry. King was thrown into solitary confinement, and the KKK bombed his motel room (shortly after the state troopers guarding it mysteriously left).
BIRMINGHAM - What did blacks do in Birmingham? Riot.
BIRMINGHAM - What happened after blacks rioted? The government was forced to step in. The city authorities gave in and desegregated the restaurants; soon after, they desegregated all Council facilities.
BIRMINGHAM - What was the most important outcome of Birmingham? TV images of brave, non-violent protestors being attacked by the police and racists created a huge groundswell of middle-class support.
WASHINGTON - What did King decide in August 1963? To make use of his support.
WASHINGTON - When did King decide to make use of his support? August 1963
WASHINGTON - What did King organise in Washington? A march that drew a quarter of a million people (including at least 75,000 white supporters), all of whom heard his brilliant 'I have a dream' speech in front of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington.
WASHINGTON - How many people saw King's famous 'I have a dream' speech? Millions live on television.
WASHINGTON - How did King finish his speech? To the cheers of the crowd, by looking forward to the time when black Americans, in the words of the Negro spiritual, would be 'Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!'.
WASHINGTON - What had King become by the end of 1963? The leader of the CRM.
WASHINGTON - What had King proved? That he could manipulate the media.
WASHINGTON - What was King? The most famous CR campaigner.
WASHINGTON - What else was good about King? The government supported him, because it realised he was more moderate than other campaigners.
Created by: mollyyy
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