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Stalin

4.3 - Industrialisation: the Five Year Plans

QuestionAnswer
What did Stalin realise? That the modernisation of industry was essential.
Stalin realised that the modernisation of industry was essential, for what? For agriculture, for defending the country from attack and for showing the USSR as being competitive with the rest of the industrialised countries in the world.
What years did the First Five Year Plan cover? 1928-32
What did the First Five Year Plan (1928-32) aim to do? Expand heavy industry - coal, iron, steel and oil.
What was the outcome of the First Five Year Plan (1928-32)? It had considerable success. The number of industrial workers more than doubled. New cities were built around new industrial areas. GOSPLAN achieved considerable success, though industries rarely reached the over-ambitious targets set.
What was GOSPLAN? The government agency responsible for the programme.
What years did the Second Five Year Plan cover? 1933-37
What did the Second Five Year Plan (1933-37) concentrate on? Making machinery, especially tractors.
When did the Third Five Year Plan start? 1938
What did the Third Five Year Plan aim to do? Produce more consumer goods for loyal Soviet citizens.
What was the Third Five Year Plan quickly transformed to doing? Building weapons, which proved necessary when Germany invaded the USSR in June 1941.
THE BUILDING OF MAGNITOGORSK - What were the huge-scale projects during industrialisation often achieved in spite of? The lack of experience of many of the workers, many of whom had been sent to labour camps.
THE BUILDING OF MAGNITOGORSK - Due to the lack of experience of many of the workers, who helped out and to do what? Sometimes foreign experts helped out with the planning of a project.
THE BUILDING OF MAGNITOGORSK - When production started, what were managers under great pressure to do? What did this lead to? Meet targets and, therefore, they either cut corners in the production process, leading to shoddy goods, or they simply lied about production figures.
THE BUILDING OF MAGNITOGORSK - What does managers cutting corners and so making shoddy goods or lying about production figures mean? That statistics published by the government in the 1930s are liable to be inaccurate.
THE BUILDING OF MAGNITOGORSK - What were the new factories constructed with? Very little attention to safety.
THE BUILDING OF MAGNITOGORSK - What did the new factories being constructed with very little attention to safety lead to? Many workers being seriously injured or killed.
THE BUILDING OF MAGNITOGORSK - What were the poor conditions in the new factories (and during the building of)? Scaffolding could easily collapse. Temperatures in winter could drop as low as -30C, whilst in the new pig-iron blast furnaces workers could suffer serious burns.
THE BUILDING OF MAGNITOGORSK - What was the case with many conscripted workers? They had little or no education and, therefore, could not read. Some Siberian peasants working on huge projects had never before ever seen electricity or even a building with a staircase to an upper floor. All they had know was huts with oil lamps.
THE BUILDING OF MAGNITOGORSK - Despite the issues, what were there? Some impressive achievements.
THE BUILDING OF MAGNITOGORSK - What was achieved? Hydroelectric dams, such as the Dnieper Dam, and the Moscow Underground Railway were admired by Russians and foreign visitors alike. Over 100 new cities were built.
THE BUILDING OF MAGNITOGORSK - Where were most of the new industrial areas located? In Siberia, east of the Ural Mountains, to ensure that Russian industry would survive an invasion from Western Europe.
THE ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE PLANS - What can be said that is negative about the plans? That there were setbacks and exaggerated claims.
THE ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE PLANS - Despite setbacks and exaggerated claims, what did the USSR succeed in? Substantially expanding its industry in the 1930s as a result of the plans.
THE ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE PLANS - When was the USSR invaded by the Germans? June 1941
THE ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE PLANS - When the USSR was invaded by the Germans in 1941, what had sufficient progress been made to do? To enable effective resistance.
THE ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE PLANS - At what time did the USSR transform itself? At a time when most other major countries were suffering the effects of the Great Depression, with millions out of work.
THE ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE PLANS - What were the social consequences of the plans? Mixed.
THE ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE PLANS - What were the bad social consequences of the plans? Millions died working on industrial projects and millions of peasant families were uprooted and forced to live thousands of miles away. Working conditions were harsh, with a 7-day working week. There were harsh punishments.
THE ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE PLANS - What were the harsh punishments involved for the people working on the industrial projects that acted as a negative social consequence of the plans? Accidentally damaging tools was treated as sabotage, and absenteeism or lateness was treated as a crime.
THE ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE PLANS - What happened to those who worked hard and succeeded? They were treated as heroes.
THE ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE PLANS - In August 1935, what did the Soviet press announce? A new hero, Alexei Stakhanov. It was claimed that he had mined 102 tonnes of coal in one shift - about 14 times the total an average worker could mine.
THE ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE PLANS - When did the Soviet press announce a new hero, Alexei Stakhanov? August 1935
THE ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE PLANS - What happened after Alexei Stakhanov was announced as a new hero by the Soviet press in August 1935? Stakhanov was praised, given medals, and went around giving lectures on how to improve productivity. Those who successfully copied his achievement were called Stakhanovites.
THE ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE PLANS - What was the issue with the rapid growth of cities? New housing could not keep pace with demand. Many had to live in dormitories. Many families lived together in one room or flat.
THE ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE PLANS - What did society begin as a result of the plans? A transformation.
THE ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE PLANS - In what ways did society begin a transformation as a result of the plans? Gradually, living conditions did improve, especially in the established cities. Electricity became available for everyday use. Radios improved communications. Education and hospitals free. Some blocks of flats had central heating.
THE ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE PLANS - Give more detail on 'education and hospitals free' being a way in which society began a transformation as a result of the plans: Education was free; hospitals with free health care became available.
THE ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE PLANS - What could those living in Moscow be proud of? The new buildings, including the Moscow underground with its spaciousness, its cathedral-style arches, colonnades and bright paintings.
THE ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE PLANS - What had the foundations been laid for? The USSR to become a superpower, which it did after the defeat of Germany in 1945.
THE ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE PLANS - When did Stalin remain in power until? His death in 1953.
THE ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE PLANS - By the time Stalin died in 1953, what had the USSR done? They controlled much of Eastern Europe and had developed the atomic bomb, making the USSR the second most powerful country in the world.
THE ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE PLANS - Generally, what can be said about industrialisation in the 1930s? It was harsh, but it achieved results on a scale that no one living at the time could have predicted.
Created by: mollyyy