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4.3 - Collectivisation: the theory, the process and the results.

What was the theory behind collectivisation? Simple - large farms would be more productive than small plots of land.
What were the large farms called? Collectives.
Why would collectives be more productive than small plots of land? They could use machinery such as tractors and combine harvesters.
What was Stalin aware of when he started collectivisation? That not many of the peasants were actually Communist Party members and was not sure if he could rely on their loyalty.
When did the process of collectivisation begin? 1929
What happened when the process of collectivisation began in 1929? Twenty-five million peasant farms were to be combined to form 240,000 collective farms (called kolkhoz).
What were the collective farms called? Kolkhoz
Immediately, how did most peasants respond to the introduction of collectivisation in 1929? They opposed giving up their land, and many of them killed their livestock rather than hand them over to the State.
Who had the most to lose from the introduction of collectivisation in 1929? The kulaks.
After the introduction of collectivisation, what did Stalin embark on? A policy of destroying the kulaks as a class.
What happened as a result of Stalin embarking on a policy of destroying the kulaks as a class? Anyone accused of being a kulak was imprisoned, shot or transported to Siberia.
What did the destruction of livestock lead to? Disastrous consequences.
What is it estimated that the animal population fell by as a result of the destruction of livestock caused by the introduction of collectivisation in 1929? About half in three years.
What did the falling of the animal population by about half in three years together with the disruption caused by collectivisation lead to? A terrible famine in which an estimated 6 million people died between 1931 and 1933.
What caused a terrible famine in which an estimated 6 million people died between 1931 and 1933? The falling of the animal population by half in three years together with the disruption caused by collectivisation.
What happened to production levels later in the 1930s? They increased.
When did production levels increase? Later in the 1930s (after the famine).
Although production levels increased later in the 1930s, what was the case? Many peasants remained in extreme poverty and were always at the mercy of a bad harvest or an extra cold winter. A substantial portion of grain was exported, and there were still many more industrial workers in the cities to be fed.
Who were the locally controlled kolkhoz supervised by? Soviet Party officials.
Why was it frequently necessary for the locally controlled kolkhoz to be supervised by Soviet Party officials? The peasants had no incentive to work hard, as any surplus would be taken away from them.
What would happen for those peasants who did work hard? Collective farms could bring benefits. Schools and hospitals were built, and peasants could feel pride in the achievements of their kolkhoz.
Later, in the 1930s, what did Stalin allow? Peasant families to have a small individual plot, with one cow and several pigs or sheep.
Created by: mollyyy
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