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Tsardom t oCommunism
1.3 - Economic policies: War Communism
|During the Civil War, what had the Red Army been supplied with?
|Food and industrial equipment.
|What did Lenin decide was the only way to ensure that the Red Army were supplied with food and industrial equipment during the Civil War?
|For the government to control the economy.
|Once Lenin decided that the government controlling the economy was essential to ensure the supply of food and industrial equipment to the Red Army during the Civil War, what happened?
|All firms employing over 10 workers were nationalised - that is, taken over by the government. In agriculture, peasants were forced to hand over a lot of their food.
|Who were the main targets of the Cheka in their searches for hoarded food (during War Communism)?
|The kulaks - the richer peasants.
|What happened to any food that was found in the Cheka's searches for hoarded food (during War Communism)?
|It was assumed to be 'surplus' and was requisitioned.
|What was a kulak?
|A rich peasant who was comparatively well off and often employed other peasants.
|How did the kulaks react to what was happening to them during War Communism? Why?
|They were angry. They had worked hard on their land and wanted to profit from it by selling their crops at a decent price.
|Due to the kulaks anger at War Communism, what did they do?
|They cut down the amount they produced so that there was less 'surplus' to be requisitioned the next year.
|What did taking over control of the major parts of the economy (in War Communism) have the appearance of? Why?
|Communism - that is, equality and sharing.
|Although the taking control of the major parts of the economy in War Communism appeared to be communism, what were the motives of it?
|They were borne of desperation during the Civil War. The new communist government had to act brutally in order for it to survive.
|By 1921, what was happening (in relation to War Communism)?
|After two bad harvests and the effects of the Civil War, there was widespread famine. Around 5 million people died.
|In early 1921, as a result of the famine and War Communism, what were there?
|Various strikes in Petrograd and other cities.
|Where was the most serious event in 1921 (in relation to War Communism)? What happened?
|At the Kronstadt naval base. The sailors who refused to obey orders in March 1921 were those who actually supported the Bolshevik takeover in 1917. The uprising was a serious threat to the government.
|What did the Bolsheviks do in response to the uprising as the Kronstadt naval base in March 1921?
|He sent an army of 60,000 men across the ice of the frozen River Neva to defeat the sailors. During three weeks of fighting, thousands of sailors and Red Army soldiers were killed, and many rebel sailors were imprisoned or executed.