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Tsardom to Communism

1.3 - The reasons for, and consequences of, Bolshevik success

What did the Whites appear to have? Substantial advantages - trained army generals, the control of much territory and foreign support.
What did the Reds have? They increasingly had long-term advantages.
What were the long-term advantages of the Reds? >the Whites had no common aim >the Whites were fighting over such a huge area >many of the Whites appeared to represent the old unequal Russian society >foreign intervention harmed the White cause more than it helped
Give more detail on the Whites having no common aim being a long-term advantage for the Reds in the Civil War: They were fighting for different causes. White generals were jealous of each other and refused to coordinate their offensives. Although the fate of the Romanov family was clearly in dispute during the Civil War, they had clearly failed to capture the Tsar
As a result of the Whites having no common aim (a long-term advantage of the Reds in the Civil War), what would they have done if they had been able to capture Nicholas II (something they had clearly failed to do)? They would have used him as a figurehead in any new government they intended to establish.
Give more detail on the Whites fighting over such a huge area being a long-term advantage for the Reds in the Civil War: It meant it was impossible to coordinate attacks.
Give more detail on many of the Whites appearing to represent the old unequal Russian society being a long-term advantage for the Reds in the Civil War: They could not promise any material improvements for the peasants. The brutality of some of the White Generals reinforced this impression.
Give more detail on foreign intervention harming the White cause more than it helped being a long-term advantage for the Reds in the Civil War: The Bolsheviks (the Reds) were able to portray themselves as the patriotic defenders of the Motherland against foreign imperialists.
What were the advantages of the Reds in the Civil War that weren't directly related to the Whites? >the Reds controlled the industrial centres and the railway networks >the Bolsheviks were fighting for a cause >Trotsky was brilliant in leading the Red Army >the Bolsheviks could be as brutal as the Whites >Lenin's policy of War Communism
How did the Reds controlling the industrial centres and railway networks in the Civil War prove advantageous to them? This allowed the Reds to move troops and materials to any area under threat. Psychologically, it was important that they controlled the two key cities of Petrograd and Moscow.
How did the Bolsheviks fighting for a cause prove advantageous to the Reds in the Civil War? Lenin's propaganda was important here (it was a focus for it).
What was the cause that the Bolsheviks were fighting for in the Civil War? The establishment of the first communist government in the world.
Give more detail on Trotsky being brilliant at leading the army being an advantage to the Reds in the Civil War: He trained officers and established brutal discipline, but also gave each soldier a sense of a mission.
Give more detail of Lenin's policy of War Communism being an advantage to the Reds in the Civil War: It helped to provide essential supplies during the Civil War.
By 1921, what was much of Russia? Devastated
In what way was much of Russia devastated by 1921? Famine was rife. Industrial production had plummeted.
Seeing as by 1921 much of Russia was devastated, what did Lenin have the task of? Getting Russia back on its feet and facing the reality that communist uprisings in other countries had failed.
By 1921, what control were the countries who had been ruled by the Tsar mostly under? What was the negative side of this? Communist. However, they were restless; they expected their independence - a situation that Russia could not afford.
Give an example of why Russia could not afford for the countries that had once been ruled by the Tsar but by 1921 were under communist control to be independent: Ukraine was essential for food supplies.
As Russia could not afford to let the now communist controlled countries who had once been ruled by the Tsar to be independent, what happened? They were declared to be socialist republics.
After the socialist republics were declared, what did Lenin announce in December 1922? The existence of the USSR - the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
When did the existence of the USSR fully come into effect? 1924
Created by: mollyyy
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