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Tsardom to Communism
1.3 - The propaganda war
|Who was propaganda used by in the Civil War?
|Why did the Reds use propaganda?
|To portray the Whites as cruel oppressors operating on behalf of foreign capitalist countries. The Reds were shown as defending Russian national interests against invading countries.
|What did Trotsky use to help with Propaganda?
|He used the railway network to send out travelling cinemas which showed propaganda films to the Red Army and to local people. Trotsky himself also used the railway network to constantly tour round, raising morale by making speeches.
|What were the troops told in Trotsky's propaganda speeches that he made when touring round using the railway networks?
|That they were defending their country from capitalists and foreigners.
|What can be said about the Whites' use of propaganda?
|With less united leadership, divided aims and language barriers, they failed to get their propaganda across as effectively.
|What did the actual fighting involve?
|Brutalities on both sides.
|How did the Reds fight?
|The used the Cheka as well as the army. In what became known as the 'Red Terror', many people were killed, not because of what they had done but because of who they were.
|Who were the most famous victims of the Cheka?
|The Tsar and his family.
|How did the Whites fight?
|They were just as bad as the Reds. They also tortured and murdered opponents and totally innocent people.
|Give an example of the violence of the Whites:
|In one village, a hole was made in the ice and every villager was pushed under.
|In the north-west, what happened (in the Civil War)?
|General Yudenich threatened Petrograd. Indeed, by 1920, he was only a few kilometres away from the city. Trotsky inspired the Red Army and Yudenich was driven back.
|In the south-west, what happened (in the Civil War)?
|General Denikin (later replaced by General Wrangel) advanced towards Moscow, but was eventually stopped by the Red Armies.
|In the east, what happened (in the Civil War)?
|Admiral Kolchak advanced, but his forces were defeated in 1919.
|What were the Poles given back in the Treaty of Versailles in 1919?
|Their status as a separate country.
|What were the Poles trying to do (in the Civil War) whilst Yudenich, Denikin and Kolchak were attempting advances on the Reds? What happened to them?
|Trying to win more territory from Russia. They were pushed back to Warsaw and forced to sign a peace treaty with the Bolsheviks in 1921.