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Tsardom to Communism
1.3 - The inital estblishment of the totalitarian rule
|What was the case when the Bolsheviks seized control?
|Most parts of Russia were not involved.
|What was a common reaction to the Bolsheviks seizing control?
|A common reaction, both in Russia and around the world, was that the Bolsheviks would soon be toppled from power.
|What did Lenin gain substantial support from?
|Publishing wide-range decrees.
|What did the wide-range decrees that Lenin published, gaining substantial support, do?
|>call on peace negotiations for First World War >confiscate all land from the nobility and Church and redistribute it to the peasants >introduce an eight-hour working day for industry >take control from factory owners >grant self-government
|In his wide-range decrees, who did Lenin call on for peace negotiations in the First World War?
|He called on all governments involved in the First World War to open negotiations for peace.
|In his wide-range decrees, who did Lenin tell to take control from factory owners, and of what?
|He told local soviets to take control of factories from factory owners
|In his wide-range decrees, who did Lenin grant self-government for?
|Non-Russian nationalities in the Russian Empire.
|What can be said about some of Lenin's wide-range decrees?
|They had little practical effect - but were good propaganda.
|However, in the first few months, what was Lenin creating?
|What is a dictatorship?
|A country, government, or the form of government in which absolute power is exercised by a dictator.
|What is a dictator?
|A person exercising absolute power, especially a ruler who has absolute, unrestricted control in a government without hereditary succession.
|In the first few months, Lenin was creating a dictatorship. What did he claim about this?
|That he needed to do this to protect the revolution from its enemies.
|What did Lenin set up to rule Russia?
|A Council of People's Commissars with himself as chairman.
|Gradually, what happened to leaders of other parties under Lenin's rule?
|They were arrested.
|What was created in December 1917? Why?
|A new secret police, the 'Cheka'. To round up enemies of the State.
|What happened to enemies of the state as a result of the Cheka?
|Many were executed or sent to concentration camps.
|What did the Red Guards become under Lenin's rule? What was their purpose?
|The Red Army to impose military rule.
|What happened to the wealthy under Lenin's rule?
|They lost all their money and had were forced to share their large houses with groups of workers.
|What did one of Lenin's decrees ban that affected many upper classes?
|The use of titles.
|What happened in January 1918?
|Elections took place for members to be elected to a Constituent Assembly.
|When did elections take place for members to be elected to a Constituent Assembly?
|What was the Constituent Assembly?
|People elected from the different parts of Russia to decide on the future way Russia should be governed. The elections had been ordered by the Provisional Government just before it was removed from power by the Bolsheviks.
|What was the purpose of the Constituent Assembly?
|To decide how Russia would be governed.
|What was an issue for Lenin with the January 1918 Constituent Assembly member elections?
|The Bolsheviks only won 175 out of 707 members, and Lenin knew that Bolshevik rule could not survive alongside this assembly.
|Due to Lenin's realisation that Bolshevik rule could not survive alongside the Constituent Assembly elected in January 1918, what happened?
|It was prevented from meeting again at gunpoint.
|By 1921, what was the political situation in Russia?
|There was only one party - the Communist Party.
|By when was the Communist Party the only party in Russia?
|What was the Communist Party?
|The name adopted by the Bolsheviks in 1918.
|What had the Bolsheviks created in Russia by 1921?
|A one-party State.