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Tsardom to Communism

1.2 - The growth of the Bolshevik Organisation in summer/autumn 1917

What happened in November 1917? Lenin and Trotsky, the leaders of the Bolsheviks, overthrew the Provisional Government.
What was the Bolshevik overthrowing of the Provisional Government in November 1917 due to? It was partly due to the weaknesses and failures of the Provisional Government, but it was also due to the way in which the Bolsheviks grew in strength in the summer and autumn of 1917. Without this, there would have been no communist revolution.
What had Lenin devoted his life to? Preparing for a revolution against the Tsar's government.
After devoting his life to preparing for a revolution against the Tsar's government, what had Lenin been disappointed by? The lack of progress; traditional loyalties in Russia remained strong in spite of appalling living conditions suffered by many.
What did Lenin see the First World War as? What is that? A capitalist war - that is, a war between rival privileged groups, with the workers being used as cannon fodder.
Following Russian defeats (in the First World War), what grew? Discontent among soldiers and civilians.
In spite of the discontent growing among soldiers and civilians due to Russian defeats (in the First World War), what did Lenin become frustrated at? Living in exile in Switzerland.
Due to his frustration over living in exile in Switzerland, what did Lenin do? He actually wrote in December 1916 that he did not expect to live to see the revolution take place.
What encouraged Lenin to come back to Russia after his expectations that a revolution would never take place in his lifetime? However, what did he find? News of the unexpected and sudden abdication of the Tsar encouraged him to return to Russia, but he found the Bolsheviks numerically small and lacking ambition.
On his return, what did Lenin do with the April Theses? Committed the Bolsheviks to overthrowing the Provisional Government.
In May 1917, what was held? Where? A Bolshevik Party Congress in Petrograd.
When was a Bolshevik Party Congress set up in Petrograd? May 1917
In the Bolshevik Party Congress set up in Petrograd in May 1917, what was set up? Under who? To represent what? A nine-man committee under Lenin was set up to represent the 80,000 Bolshevik Party members.
What had happened to the size of the Bolshevik Party between March and May 1917? It had trebled.
Despite the Bolshevik Party trebling in size between March and May 1917, what was an issue with their size? Even in May 1917, it was still miniscule compared with the total population of the Russian Empire.
What did the Bolshevik Party's agreed policies include (after the setting of its congress in May 1917)? All power to the Soviets, and end to the war, land to the peasants and the workers to control the factories.
What happened in July 1917 (in regards to the Bolshevik Party)? Unrest in the streets boiled over into riots and demonstrations, and many Bolsheviks were involved in this.
What was true despite the fact that many Bolsheviks were involved in the riots and demonstrations of July 1917? It was not an organised rebellion and the Bolshevik leaders were not encouraging it.
After the riots had been quelled and order restored by the Provisional Government, what did the Bolsheviks appear to be? Weaker.
Why did the Bolsheviks appear weaker after the July 1917 riots had been quelled and order had been restored by the Provisional Government? Their newspaper, 'Pravda', was closed down and the Bolshevik leaders went into hiding. Lenin fled to Finland.
After the events of July 1917 (after which Lenin fled to Finland), what were many anti-Bolsheviks openly accusing him of? They were openly accusing him of causing the troubles, and alleged that he had been paid to do so by the German government.
Especially after the failure in July of the Russian offensive against Austria, what happened to events? What else happened? They moved on rapidly. Discontent again increased as the Provisional Government was seen to be weak and lack authority.
In the time after July 1917, who officially joined the Bolshevik Party? Trotsky
In September 1917, what did General Kornilov, Commander-in-Chief of the army, decide (that affected the Bolsheviks)? That, in order to win the war, drastic action was necessary.
As a result of General Kornilov's decision in September 1917 that in order to win the war drastic action was necessary, what did he do? With the support of who? With the support of many army generals, he decided to march to Petrograd and seize control from the Provisional Government.
What did Kerensky do in reaction to Kornilov's decision to march into Petrograd and seize control from the Provisional Government in September 1917 (that affected the Bolsheviks)? Why? He needed help in defending the city, so he released Bolshevik leaders from jail and helped to arm their Red Guards.
What happened in September 1917 after the Bolshevik Red Guards were armed by Kerensky in order to help him defend Petrograd (and the Provisional Government) from Kornilov's troops? The Petrograd Soviet took charge and the Bolsheviks persuaded many of Kornilov's men to desert. Kornilov's attempt failed and Lenin's Bolsheviks were seen as the saviours of Russia.
What was happening to Russia after the events of September 1917? It was descending into chaos. More and more peasants were seizing land; more and more soldiers were deserting from the army.
What did the Bolsheviks gain control of after the events of September 1917? The Petrograd ad Moscow Soviets - and others too in various parts of the country.
What can be said about the Bolshevik Party after the events of September 1917? They were still very much a minority party, but they had key support where it mattered - among the cities and towns and among the soldiers in the army.
Created by: mollyyy
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