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Tsardom to Communism

1.2 - The failures of the Provisional Government

In addition to the problems inherited by the Provisional Government, what else was an issue for it? Its members increasingly struggled during the spring and summer of 1917.
Who opposed the Provisional Government? Supporters of the Tsar and revolutionary parties.
Why did revolutionary parties find it easier to make their policies known under the rule of the Provisional Government? The easing of censorship restrictions.
What posed the biggest threat to the Provisional Government? What was different about this threat? The small Bolshevik Party. It was not obvious at the time.
Why did the small Bolshevik Party pose a threat to the Provisional Government? Its leader, Lenin, returned in April 197 from exile in Switzerland. The German government provided a special train to take him to Russia via Sweden and Finland. The Germans hoped that Lenin would cause chaos and reduce Russia's war effort.
Where did Lenin arrive back in Russia in April 1917 (after being in exile in Switzerland)? Finland Station in Petrograd.
What did Lenin do when he arrived at the Finland Station in Petrograd? How did the Bolsheviks react to this? He read out what became known as the April Theses. This surprised even the Bolsheviks.
What was the April Theses? Lenin's plan of action for the Bolsheviks, calling for the overthrow of the Provisional Government. His famous slogans included 'All power to the Soviets' and 'Peace, bread and land'.
What did the Provisional Government face in July 1917? A major crisis.
What was the major crisis faced by the Provisional Government in July 1917? There were large but disorganised demonstrations against the government, led by soldiers and sailors, often with Bolshevik support.
How did Kerensky respond to the demonstrations against the Provisional Government in July 1917? He crushed the demonstrators and 400 of them were killed. Leading Bolsheviks were arrested.
What did Lenin do as a result of Kerensky's violent response to the largely Bolshevik supported demonstrations against the Provisional Government in July 1917? He fled and went into exile again, this time over the border into Finland.
What happened in September 1917? The new Commander-in-Chief of the army, General Kornilov, decided to seize control.
When did the new Commander-in-Chief of the army, General Kornilov, decide to seize control? September 1917
When the new Commander-in-Chief of the army, General Kornilov, tried to seize control in September 1917, what did he want? To restore discipline, destroy the Petrograd Soviet and gain control of the Provisional Government.
What were General Kornilov (the new Commander-in-Chief of the army in September 1917)'s views? Right-wing.
Who did General Kornilov (Commander-in-Chief of the army)'s views appeal to? Many of the middle and upper classes.
What did General Kornilov do in September 1917? He ordered his troops to march on Petrograd.
How did Kerensky respond to General Kornilov ordering his troops to march on Petrograd in September 1917? Why? Kerensky was desperate and, in order to have sufficient troops to defend the city, he armed the Bolshevik 'Red Guards'.
What were the results of Kerensky arming the Bolshevik 'Red Guards' to help defend Petrograd against General Kornilov's troops in September 1917? This succeeded, and the Bolsheviks were hailed as saviours. They kept the weapons that Kerensky had loaned them.
Created by: mollyyy