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Tsardom to Communism

1.1 - The nature of Russian society in 1914

What did Tsar Nicholas II rule? Not just a country, but a huge empire. It spread across the continents of Europe and Asia and stretched across eight time zones. Its population was over 125 million, but only 55 million were Russian.
What had happened as the Russian Empire had expanded in previous centuries? Many other nationalities had been included, such as Finns, Poles, Ukrainians, Estonians, Lithuanians and Georgians.
What was an issue with many nationalities having been included in the Russian Empire as it expanded over previous centuries? They had their own languages and their own religions, such as Roman Catholic Christians in Poland and Muslims in the south of the empire near the Black Sea.
What was the difference in climate in the Russian Empire? In the north, people lived in the Arctic Circle; in the south, there were nomads living in tents in semi-desert areas.
What were most of the people living in the Russian Empire? Peasants
What was there a huge contrast between in the Russian Empire? The peasants and the rich nobles.
Describe the life of the peasants in the Russian Empire in 1914: They had only recently had the right to possess their own land, but they had little machinery + were desperately poor. They farmed on strips of land with old-fashioned tools, as had happened for centuries. A poor harvest would mean famine and many deaths.
Describe the life of the nobles in the Russian Empire in 1914: They were immensely rich, owning ornate palaces that rivalled those of the Tsar.
What process had started in Russia in the 19th century? How? What was an issue with it? Industrialisation, with industries such as coal mining, iron, steel and textiles. However, conditions in the rapidly expanding cites of Moscow and St. Petersburg were even worse than those in the countryside.
Created by: mollyyy
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