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Tsardom to Communism

1.1 - The government of Nicholas II in 1914

How did the Tsar rule Russia? As an autocracy
What is autocracy? Rule by someone who has complete power.
Who was the Tsar? Nicholas II
How long had Russia's ruler, Tsar Nicholas II, been on the throne for? 20 years
What did Tsar Nicholas II believe? That he ruled Russia on behalf of God, and therefore no one had the right to challenge him.
How long had Tsar Nicholas II's family, the Romanovs, ruled Russia for? 300 years
Who was Tsar Nicholas II's wife? Alexandra, who had been a German princess.
How many children did Tsar Nicholas II and the Tsarina, Alexandra, have? They had 4 daughters, all greatly loved, but Nicholas and Alexandra were desperate to have a son who could succeed the throne. When a boy, whom they named Alexis, was born, there was great rejoicing throughout the empire.
What was the issue with the Tsar and Tsarina's son, Alexis? It was soon discovered that he had haemophilia, a blood disease that meant his blood would not clot. If he cut himself, he could bleed to death. Far worse was internal bleeding following any knock or bump.
As a result of Alexis' haemophilia, how was he treated as he grew up? He was protected as much as possible from injuries. Only a small number of people knew what was actually wrong with whom they assumed was a rather sickly boy.
In theory, what was the Tsar? Why? All-powerful. Priests in the Russian Orthodox Church supported this claim. The Tsar had advisers, whom he appointed, but he made all the decisions.
What was an issue with the Tsar making all the decisions? He was not very good at it.
What is the Russian Orthodox Church? The Christian Church in Russia.
What had the Tsar been forced to do in 1905? What was an issue with this? To allow a Duma to be elected, but it had little power and was heavily dominated by the educated upper and middle classes. The Tsar could dismiss it whenever he wished and he was not forced to take any notice of what it wanted.
What is a Duma? A representative assembly, or parliament, first set up in 1905 as a concession by the Tsar. However, the Tsar made sure that the Duma had little power.
What was an issue with the actual government under the Tsar? It was cumbersome, inefficient and slow. Hampered by poor communications, information took months to be received. However, the Tsar's wishes were enforced by the secret police, the Okhrana. Newspapers and books were censored.
What was the Okhrana? The secret police force of the Russian Empire.
What was the name of the secret police force in the Russian Empire? The Okhrana
Created by: mollyyy
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