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8th Grade Final

Final Exam

Spoils System policy of giving jobs to loyal political allies; spread corruption
Temperance Movement wanted to outlaw alcohol; most early reformers were women
“Muckrakers” Roosevelt’s nickname for reform journalists like Ida Tarbell, Upton Sinclair, and Lincoln Steffens
Women’s Suffrage(right to vote) 1st received the right to vote in western states; 19th amendment gave women the right to vote in 1920 after 50 years of pressure from suffragists
Interstate Commerce Act and Sherman anti-trust act passed to limit the power of big business; were early attempts to regulate business
Purchase of Alaska known as “Seward’s Folly” because many saw it as a waste of money
Open Door Policy Secretary of State John Hay’s plan to allow all nations to trade equally in China; this helped protect US right to trade with China
Peace Treaty at the end of the Spanish American War gave islands of Puerto Rico, Guam, Wake and the Philippines to the US; helped the US gain an overseas empire and question weather the US wanted to create colonies; this angered many Americans
Philippines gave the US better access to Asia; did not gain their Independence until 1946
Francisco “Pancho” Villa raided Columbus New Mexico killing 18 Americans, Wilson sent several thousand soldiers across the border into Mexico in 1916
Roosevelt Corollary was an extension of the Monroe Doctrine that allowed the United States to intervene in Latin American affairs
Isthmus narrow strip of land connecting to larger pieces of land; US build a canal across the isthmus of Panama
Dollar Diplomacy Taft’s economic policy in Latin America
“Spark” of WWI Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
African Americans served in all black units led by white officers; often utilized in non-combat units
Causes of WWI Nationalism, Imperialism, Militarism(glorification of the military), and the system of alliances
American Expeditionary Force Name given to the American troops in Europe; welcomed by parades and flowers in Paris
Selective Service Act Established by Wilson to require young men to register for the draft to expand the US army after Congress declares war
Influenza caused a world wide epidemic in 1918-1919; killed 500,000 in US
Returning Soldiers competed for limited jobs and high unemployment resulted
Paris Peace Conference Big “4” were France, Britain, Italy and US; Wilson’s main goal was to create an International organization to promote peace(League of Nations); other allies wanted to punish Germany
Espionage and Sedition Acts used by the government to jail Americans who were expressing anti-war views
Recession followed WWI as returning troops looked for jobs and war industries laid off workers; ended by the mid 1920’s
Strikes Postwar strikes led to a fear that a Communist revolution was happening in the United States(Red Scare)
18th Amendment established prohibition, the banning of alcohol in the United States; success of the Temperance Movement
Prohibition(18th Amendment) Banning of the sale, production, and consumption of alcohol in the United States; began as a way to conserve grain during WWI; led to a rise in organized crime and violence
Automobile Henry Ford’s assembly line led to the mass production of automobiles; led to a more mobile society; tourism increased
The Great Migration Name given to movement of African Americans to the North during the 20’s; helped Jazz spread North
“Victory Gardens” planted to help conserve food; Mrs. Wilson had one on the White House lawn
Flappers women who wore shorter dresses, bobbed their hair, and wore bright lipstick; they smoked, drank, and danced; became a symbol of a 20’s woman
Bonus Army WWI veterans who marched to Washington DC to get early payment of their $1,000 bonus’s early
Harlem Renaissance African American cultural rebirth that started in Harlem which is located in New York City; Hughes, Johnson, and Hurston were all writers from the Harlem Renaissance
Installment Buying buying on credit; buying something and paying it off over time a little at a time; one cause of the industrial boom of the 20’s
Stock Market boomed during the 1920’s; encouraged a lot of people to borrow money to invest in the stock market
Sacco/Vanzetti Trial Italian immigrants found guilty of murder with little evidence; shows a fear of foreigners in the United States
Babe Ruth celebrated baseball hero of the 1920’s
Great Depression Long period of economic decline caused by overproduction, a banking crisis, and unemployment; ended in 1941 when the US entered WWII
FDIC insures depositors’ bank accounts and guarantees individuals money back
Critics of the New Deal conservatives believed the New Deal had gone too far while liberals believed it had not gone far enough to help the poor; many also were worried about the governments deficit spending
Black Blizzards severe dust storms during the Dust Bowl on the plains
“Black Tuesday” October 29, 1929 the day the stock market crashed
African Americans moved North during the Depression looking for work
Hoovervilles nickname for homeless communities in the early 1930’s
Soap Operas nickname for Radio dramas that were sponsored by soap boxes
Lend-Lease Law Passed by Congress to help prevent Hitler and the Nazi’s from conquering Britain; provided Britain with desperately needed aid; US wanted to be the “arsenal of democracy”
Coral Sea and Midway Naval battles that turned the tide in the Pacific in 1942
American Industry switched from producing consumer goods to military goods in WWII
Rationing The US issued ration books(coupons) that limited the amount of certain products consumers could purchase; rationing ensured that certain resources were reserved for soldiers and civilians
Island Hopping Offensive strategy of the Americans in the Pacific; US attacked some Japanese held islands while going around others
Interment Camps Government run camps in the US that singled out Japanese, German, and Italian Americans
Women took over men’s jobs in factories and shipyards, “Rosie the Riveter” inspired women to take over men’s jobs in factories
Holocaust term used to describe the mass slaughter of Jews in Europe; this was Hitler’s “Final Solution” to the “Jewish Problem”
Marshall Plan US gave money to nations in Western Europe to assist them after WWII; help them resist communism
Soviet Union was the 2nd nation to detonate an atomic bomb in 1949; launched Sputnik, the worlds first human-made satellite; developments increased fear during the Cold War; supported North Korea and later Vietnamese leader Ho Chi Minh
Korean War Started when the communist North Koreans invaded South Korea; ended a cease-fire; a demilitarized Zone(DMZ) was set up at the border
Peace Corps American volunteer program to help people in developing countries
Arms Race Soviet Union and the United States competed to build more and more powerful weapons
Jim Crow Laws forced legal separation in public places in the South
Little Rock, Arkansas Federal troops were used to integrate schools after the Brown decision
John F. Kennedy President whose reforms include Peace Corps, the Space program(most lasting); Warren Commission concluded Lee Harvey Oswald was the only one involved in JFK’s assassination
The Great Society President Johnson’s reform to end poverty in the US; led to increased government spending providing help to the poor and others in need
Martin Luther King Jr Leader of the Civil Rights Movement, used Civil Disobedience or non-violent protest to fight discrimination
Montgomery Bus Boycott Rosa Parks was arrested for not giving up her seat on a bus; Blacks responded by staging the Montgomery Bus Boycott that lasted over a year; Martin Luther King Jr. became a leader of the Civil Rights Movement
Miranda v. Arizona extended the rights of the accused by requiring police to inform those accused of a crime of their rights
Affirmative Action giving preference to minority groups to make up for past discrimination
People with Disabilities Organizations pushed for laws requiring public places to have access for people with disabilities
Lyndon Johnson took over after Kennedy and escalated US involvement in Vietnam
Media Graphic images of the War broadcasted on TV turned many Americans against the war
Vietnamization policy of allowing the government of South Vietnam to slowly take over the war; soon all American troops were pulled out
Watergate Scandal involving President Nixon; Nixon resigns over the controversy and is pardoned by Ford
Apartheid South African policy that barred voting from the nonwhite majority(Blacks)
Persian Gulf War Saddam Hussein(Iraq) was forced to withdraw from Kuwait as a result of the war
Oklahoma City site of a terrorist attack in 1995; act was carried out by Americans
Patriot Act Granted the Gov. broad powers to investigate people in the US w/o getting court approval 1st; many believe it is a violation of our Constitutional rights and a threat to our civil liberties
AIDS New and deadly disease that weakens the immune system; grew in the 1980’s
MRI medical scan that can give doctors pictures of internal organs and systems without having to perform surgery
Immigrants Latinos are the largest source of immigrants today followed by Asians; Nevada is the fastest growing state; many say immigrants drive down wages; Latinos are also the largest ethnic minority today
Renewable Resources water, solar, wind, and geo-thermal power are all renewable resources
Global Warming belief that increased levels of carbon dioxide from car emissions, factories, and other things have led to worldwide increased temperatures
September 11th, 2001 terrorists high jacked airplanes and flew them into the World Trade Center and Pentagon killing 3,000; Bush vowed to hunt down those responsible; he also urged Americans not to take out their anger on Muslims
War in Iraq 2003 US(Bush) attacked Iraq in 2003 because we believed that Saddam Hussein supported terrorists and was making Weapons of Mass Destruction; many criticized the action because Iraq had not attacked 1st and no WMD’s were found
Nuclear Energy produces no air pollution but produces hazardous waste materials
Created by: PRO Teacher bmerkt
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