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7th grade Final

Final Exam

TermDefinition
Louisiana Purchase France’s Napoleon offered Livingston and Monroe all of Louisiana to buy rather then New Orleans; Lewis and Clark are later sent to explore the new lands; largest land purchase in US history; Jefferson worried because he did not think he had the Constituti
Lewis and Clark Expedition purpose was to map a new route to the Pacific Ocean, find information on plant and animal life in the West, increase knowledge of Native Americans in the West
Judicial Review power of the supreme court to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional; established by the case Marbury v. Madison
Mississippi River important to farmers because it helped them ship their goods to market through New Orleans
Embargo Act Ban on trade; ordered by Jefferson in response to British impressments of our troops; used to try to force Britain and France to respect American neutrality
Results of the War of 1812 Americans felt more pride in the US; British agreed to stop fighting with the US
Tribute Payment in return for protection
War Hawks supporters of the War of 1812
Tecumseh Encouraged Native Americans to unite against the white settlers
Continental Divide separates river systems flowing in opposite directions; the Rocky Mountains
Adams-Onis Treaty gave the United States control of Florida
National Bank Jackson believed this only benefited the wealthy
High Tariffs supported by the north because they had a lot of factories; opposed by the South because they had fewer factories
Monroe Doctrine warned European Nations to stay out of Latin American affairs; this was intended to protect newly independent nations in Latin America
Suffrage the right to vote
The Liberator Name given to Simon Bolivar for leading independence movements in Latin America
Interstate Commerce Trade between two or more states
Irish Immigration Large numbers of Irish came to the US in the mid-1800’s because of the potato famine; treated harsh in the US because most were members of the Catholic Church
Steam Engine(Power)- Invented by James Watt; allowed factories to be built anywhere; steam power was better then water power
Discrimination Treating someone different because of their race; blacks were denied equal opportunities in education, jobs, housing, and many other areas in society; there were also not allowed to serve on juries
Slave Codes laws passed to control the lives of slaves; made things like gathering in groups of more then 3 and getting an education illegal for slaves
Erie Canal Allowed western farmers to ship their goods to New York City
Eli Whitney Invented the Cotton Gin and Interchangeable Parts; the cotton gin caused slavery to grow quickly to 10 times its size by 1820
Missouri Compromise kept the number of free and slave states equal(11-11); Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine as a free
Lowell Mills Most of the workers were young single women
Clipper Ship sleek fast moving ship that increased the speed of trade
Samuel Slater Memorized plans to make steam powered textile mills and came to the US to make them
Immigration Immigrants came for many reasons including to escape famine, revolutions, and for cheap land in the US
German Immigration Failed revolutions caused many to come to the US for better opportunities and cheap land
Railroads building became widespread by the mid-1800’s; an advantage was the fact they could be built almost anywhere; linked many towns with factories and city’s
Industrial Revolution change in the ways goods were produced; production moved to factories with many machines and workers; started in the textile industry
Reform Movements were a result of belief that people could improve themselves and society
Cotton required a great deal of labor(slaves)
Robert Fulton known as the inventor of the Steam Boat
Abolitionists Movement Fight to end slavery in the South; feared by some Northerners who felt free slaves would take their jobs
Underground Railroad Series of escape routes out of the South; conductors like Harriet Tubman knew the routes and would help guide slaves to freedom
American Painting painted American landscapes
Horace Mann pushed for improved education; believed it was necessary for democracy to work
2nd Great Awakening religious revival that stressed freewill(the belief that people can make their lives and society better)
Education Northeastern states had the best opportunities for schooling and the most elementary schools, Massachusetts led the way
Women in the Early 1800’s could receive a college education but it was difficult, did not hold political office
Frederick Douglas speaker for the abolitionist movement who was a former slave
Mountain Men explored much of the new territory of the west trapping and hunting for furs
Gold Rush more then 80,000 people(Forty-niners) traveled to California in search of gold in 1849; Native American population dropped from 150,000 to 50,000 at the same time; tales of “mountain gold” attracted 1,000’s from China and other areas of the World
Oregon Trail route taken by settlers looking to find farmland, take part in the fur trade, and spread Christianity
Alamo Texans defended the Alamo while being greatly outnumbered, they were killed to the last man after holding off 6,000 Mexicans for almost 2 weeks; became an inspiration for many Americans to volunteer for the Texan army
New Spain Spanish and Native Americans shared language, foods, and other customs creating a distinct culture in the Southwest
Mexican-American War United States acquired New Mexico, and parts of Texas, Utah, California, Nevada, and Arizona
Manifest Destiny belief that the United States was meant to extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific; was a cause of annexation of Oregon, the Mexican-American War, and Texas War of Independence
Brigham Young Mormon leader who led settlers to Utah
Dictatorship one person rule
Vigilante self-appointed law officer
Land Grant Government gift of land
California When California was admitted as a free state it upset many southerners because it upset the balance between free and slave states in the Senate
Southerners were dissatisfied with the election of Abraham Lincoln; seceded from the Union and attacked Fort Sumter starting the Civil War
Dred Scott Decision Supreme court decision that stated that slaves were property and not citizens , even in a free territory
Lincoln-Douglas Debates Series of debates between Lincoln and Douglas; Lincoln argued he did not want slavery to spread to the territories while Douglas believed in using popular sovereignty to decide the issue of slavery
Civil War Causes included; election of 1860, secession of Southern states, Confederate attack on Fort Sumter
Compromise of 1850 California is admitted as a free state, slave trade is banned in Washington DC, strict fugitive slave law is passed, popular sovereignty would decide the slave questions in the lands won from Mexico
Propaganda misleading and sometimes false information meant to hurt one cause and further another cause
Popular Sovereignty allows people to vote directly on issues like slavery
John Brown murdered pro-slavery supporters in Kansas; raided the arsenal at Harpers Ferry trying to start a slave revolt; supported by many in the North which angered many in the South
African Americans Volunteered to fight for the Union in large numbers; were not drafted by the North because politicians worried about turning northern whites against the war
Battle of Bull Run Confederate Victory. Watched by many picnic goers. Showed that both sides still needed training
William Tecumseh Sherman Captured Atlanta and led “March to the Sea” Used total war to destroy southern will to fight
Abraham Lincoln Main goal was to reunite the nation
Clara Barton Civil War nurse and founder of the American Red Cross
Emancipate to set free
Effects of the Civil War left the South in ruins; prices rose in both the North and the South
Jefferson Davis President of the Confederacy(South)
End of Slavery Became a goal of the North in 1863
Created by: PRO Teacher bmerkt