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Tsarist Russia

A Level History Russia, inc. Alexander II, III and Nicholas II mainly reforms

What was a Slavophile? Somebody who believed that Russia needed its own unique way to stimulate economic growth.
What was a Westerniser? Somebody who thought that Russia should take lessons from the West in order to stimulate economic growth.
What were the problems with Serfdom? They prevented the growth of Russian Industry Prevented the introduction of modern agriculture in Russia The army was made up of mainly poorly trained Serfs It promoted many uprisings
What were the key terms with the emancipation of the Serfs? They had to pay the state back over 49 Years as the state paid for their freedom Peasant families had to farm 20% less land before the emancipation Free serfs could now own property, start a business, etc... Household serfs got no land, just freedom
What did Alexander II's reforms include? Army reform, Local Govt., Reform of the Law, Censorship, Educational Reform, Economic Reform and development, Nationalities in the Russian Empire.
What did the Army Reforms do? The length of service for conscripts was lowered down to 6 years, with 9 in the reserves and 5 in the militia. The reserves numbers were raised from 210,000 to 553,000 by 1870. Training and discipline was made more humane and efficient.
What did the Local Govt. Reforms do? The creation of Zemstva which were elected bodies representing peasants, townspeople and Gentry. Dumas were set up in larger cities and had the same powers.
What were some of the responsibilities of the Zemstva/Duma? Their responsibilities were public health, prisons, roads, agriculture, the relief of famine and some areas of education.
How was the law reformed under Alexander II? Juries were introduced into criminal cases. There was the introduction of a hierarchical courts system. Judges were well paid and so were likely to take less bribes. Courts were now open to the public.
What happened to some of the reforms in the law? Political cases were removed from the control of these types of courts. The police still held significant influence in the court and could still arrest people as they wished.
What was some of the changes made to censorship under Alexander II? Book makers were able to write what they wanted - they could print what they wanted to, however, the Minister of Interior maintained the power to suspend these writings if they weren't appropriate.
What did the educational reforms include? New regulation introduced in 1863 allowed private schools, however, gave them a curriculum of: religion, reading and writing and mathematics. Girls were offered a non vocational education - which hadn't been the case before.
What impact did the educational reforms have on University Students studying abroad? It allowed them to study abroad without being put under surveillance when they left the country. However, this meant they could spread radical ideals around Russia and not be watched for it.
How much did the industrial workforce expand by in 1887 under Alexander II's economic reforms? From 860,000 to 1,320,000
What else expanded under these economic reforms? The railways, from 2,200 miles to 14,200 miles.
What were some of the impacts of the reforms? Opposition grew due to the more liberal and openness approach of the regime which left the Tsars under threat as there was more opposition to him. The people wanted more radical reforms which the Tsar would never deliver.
When was the first attempt on the Tsar's life? What happened? April 1866, when a disillusioned student who was a member of a student group called "Hell". He shot at the Tsar but missed and was arrested and executed.
Who assassinated Tsar Alexander II? In what year did this happen? The People's Will: A group of revolutionists who believed in Marxism and wanted to achieve this through acts of terrorism. He was assassinated in 1881
Who succeeded Alexander II to the throne? His son, Tsar Alexander III
What reforms did Alexander III change? Police being centralised under the Ministry of the Interior Conditions in prisons were made harsher. Libraries had limitations on books they were allowed to stock. Lower class children were banned from secondary education. Uni's couldn't run affairs
What did Alexander III introduce as a result of his reforms? Land Captains, who had absolute power, replaced elected Justices of the Peace Committees were set up to ban authors who submitted "harmful" material Peasant representation in the Zemstva was reduced and were appointed, not elected.
What were some of the causes of the 1891 Famine? Early winter and a long dry summer ruined most crops The Government heavily taxed consumer goods forcing peasants to sell more grain and having less in reserve incase of crop failure The Government had a ban on importing grain
How was the Famine of 1891 solved? The Govt appealed to people to partake in voluntary assistance schemes Alex III announced that there were 2 state lotteries to raise supply money for the peasants Organised soup canteens were set up and people became doctors to treat victims of cholera.
How did Russia achieve its quick economic growth? Count Witte realised there was a shortage of funds in Russia and so turned to W. Europe for investment. In 1880 there was 98m roubles investment. By 1900 there was 911m roubles investment. This resulted in an increase in annual production.
The amount of Russian railway increased from 27km in 1840 to 53,234km by 1900. What was the centrepiece of this railway network? The Trans-Serbian railway was the centrepiece of the railway network. It was hoped that the railway network would pay for itself with passengers and freight going to Siberia.
How were the Govt. finances reformed? Ivan V., Finance Minister began to reform these by reducing the amount of imports and imposing higher tariffs. He also built up Russia's Gold Reserve and balanced the budget Witte then carried this on by introducing a new gold currency.
Alexander III chose to oppress the other nationalities of the Russian Empire in a process called what? Russification.
What did this process include? Withdrawing local governments Russian was the only language that was spoken in schools Ukrainian was banned outright and was not recognised as a real language by the government Anti-Jewish antics were promoted, this included not being able to own land
Was Russification successful? State for arguments. It stopped other nationalities having a voice in Government, It limited their power and chance of rebellion, If successful it would slowly eliminate the culture of these people
Was Russification successful? State the arguments against. Led to the 1905 Revolution, People would become disillusioned with the regime, It gave the people of these nationalities a reason to fight; for their identity.
Nicholas II Nicholas II
What were some of the events that prompted change during the reign of Nicholas II? Russo-Japanese War Bloody Sunday 1905 Revolt October Manifesto (Constitution) World War 1 1917 Revolutions
What was the character of Nicholas II? Narrow minded and suspicious of change. He wanted to continue the reactionary reforms that his father started
What did the Russo-Japanese war lead to in Russia? Humiliation, Increased internal unrest, Economic problems including food and fuel shortages, Led to the 1905 Revolution due to discontent.
The 1905 Revolution resulted in what? General strike that included around 2.5 million people Peasants rioting Illegal Unions being formed Economic disruption
As a direct result of the 1905 Revolution, Nicholas II was forced to concede what? The October Manifesto.
What did the October Manifesto Reform do? Removed censorship, Allowed freedom of speech, Allowed universal suffrage, Allowed the creation of a state Duma It's aim was to create a constitutional monarchy and fulfilled most liberals demands.
Just before the Duma was due to meet for the first time, what set of laws were introduced? What did they allow? The Fundamental Laws were introduced. These laws upholder and reinstalled the Tsars autocratic power. Wasn't well received by the people or liberals.
What were some of the features of the New Constitution? Created the Duma, Council of Ministers and State Council. It had an unfair voting system, heavy noble representation and the Tsar could veto any decision and dismiss any member.
What were the purposes of the Duma? Was to be the centre of political discussion Helped spread democracy Encouraged public and political debate Approving important reforms
What were some of the problems with the Duma? Not all parties represented There was failure and constant dissolvement of the Duma Didn't support Agrarian reform
What was the Agrarian Reforms aims? Preventing peasant unrest increasing peasant ownership increase urbanisation 1907 Redemption payments abolished Peasant bank established State and crown land became avaliable
What was the outcome of Agrarian Reform? Peasant ownership increased from 20% to 50% Grain production increased leading to Russia being the world leading cereal exporter However, peasants were reluctant to change farming methods.
What were two of Nicholas II's radical policies? Russification and Anti-Semitism
What was included in Russification? The restricting of all things non-Russian of the national minorities in order to impose Slavic ways as superior. Russian became the first language and there was much discrimination against non-Russians.
What was included in Anti-Semitism? It was deeply ingrained in Russia. He introduced heavy Social, political and economic restrictions on Jews. The number of pogroms increased. But so did the hate for the Tsarist system as he alienated half his population.
What was the public response for these reforms? Increased and organised opposition, Many political parties were formed, Wit's economic reforms led to rapid economic expansion, Encouraged new age lawyers Groups wanting to modernise Russia were formed.
What was the major conflict that started the downfall of the Tsarist regime? 1914, The First World War.
Why did the Russian Army suffer so badly in the War? The Russian Army wasn't sufficiently equip to deal with the modernised German Army - in the Battle of Tannenburg (1914), the Russian Army was forced into full scale retreat by the Germans.
Continued... The Russian Army wasn't well trained or well equipped enough to fight against the more organised German Artillery or Tactics.
What was the "straw that broke the camels back" in this conflict? In August 1915, Nicholas II decided to take over the army himself - despite protests from his advisors - he went ahead with his take over.
What were some of the political causes of the 1917 Revolution? The Tsar had suspended the Duma in August 1915 - which caused outrage throughout the country and dashed any hope of a Government of National Unity as had been seen in Britain in 1917. The Duma reopened in November 1916 where the Tsar was attacked.
What were some of the economic causes of the 1917 Revolution? Inflation - saw the buying power of wages destroyed in comparison to the cost of goods. Food shortages - more difficult to buy food for the people and the poor conditions of the railway saw food not get to the people despite there being a good harvest.
Created by: lukecoleman