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8th Grade US History - Final Exam

What prompted the impeachment of Andrew Johnson? Many Radicals wanted Johnson's removal, because they feared Reconstruction could not be successful as long as he remained in office.
Explain the arguments of both the North and South over tariffs. The Northerners felt there was a need for high tariffs to protect domestic industries. The South wanted low tariffs to protect their textile industry and to freely export products to foreign countries.
What was Bleeding Kansas? A series of violent political confrontations in the U.S. involving anti-slavery "Free-Starters" and pro-slavery "Border Ruffian" elements in Kansas between 1854-1861.
Where were the first shots of the Civil War? Fort Sumter, SC
What was the turning point of the Civil War? Battle of Gettysburg, because the South was never able to invade the North again and the Battle of Vicksburg because the Confederacy was divided into two sections and the Mississippi River was controlled by the North.
Who was president of the Confederate State of America? Jefferson Davis
Who was the general of the Union? Ulysses S. Grant
Who was the general of the Confederacy? Robert E. Lee
What was the first official battle of the Civil War? First Battle of Bull Run
What was the importance of the Battle of Vicksburg? The Confederacy was divided into two sections and the Mississippi River was controlled by the North following the Battle of Vicksburg.
Where did Lee surrender to Grant? Appomattox Courthouse
Who were the Radical Republicans and what were their views? A group of Northern Congressmen who wanted freedmen to be granted full political equality. They passed a Civil Rights Bill which guaranteed freedmen's rights. They rewrote the Civil Rights Bill as the 14th Amendment.
Who were the Copperhead Democrats? In the North, War Democrats did not like Lincoln's war strategy. Peace Democrats wanted to end the Civil War and reunite the states. Most Peace Democrats came from Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana. People against the Peace Democrats were called this...
What was the subject of Lincoln's First Inaugural Address? He spoke to the seceding states..."the Union ... is perpetual." He pleaded with the South..."We must not be enemies."
What was the subject of Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address? Made an appeal "to bind up the nation's wounds" and consider Civil War divine vengeance for 250 years of slavery.
How was life different in the North compared to the South? North: Industrial South: agrarian and pro-slavery
What was the Kansas-Nebraska act? Proposed by Stephen Douglas. Louisiana Purchase would be divided into 2 territories: Kansas and Nebraska - "popular sovereignty" would decide if slave or free.
Who was John Brown? What did he do? What happened to him? Captured a federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry and planned to lead a slave revolt. He was captured by Robert E. Lee and executed.
Who won the Election of 1860? Abraham Lincoln won. He won every Northern state, but was not even on the ballot in most of the Southern states.
What happened immediately after the election? Many white Southerners believed the Republicans would now try to end slavery. On Dec 20, 1860, South Carolina left the Union. Other Southern states debated secession, or withdrawing from the Union, too.
Who was responsible for this action (South Carolina leaving Union)? John C. Calhoun
What is sharecropping? system of farming in which a farmer works land for an owner who provides equipment and seeds and receives a share of the crop.
What treaty ended the Mexican War? Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
What were the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo? Added an additional 525,000 square miles to US territory, including lad that makes up all or parts of present-day AZ, CA, CO, NV, NM, UT and WY. Mexico gave up Rio Grande as US southern border. US paid Mexico $15 million & agreed to settle all claims.
Who wrote the Star-Spangled Banner? Francis Scott Key
What is the significance of Marbury v. Madison? (1801) Court case that gave Supreme Court the right of judicial review.
Who was Chief Justice when this case took place (Marbury v. Madison)? John Marshall
What is a labor union and what is its purpose? An organization of workers who unite to achieve common goals such as protecting trade, improving safety standards, higher pay & benefits, better working conditions, etc.
Who is Henry David Thoreau and what did he do? an American author, poet, philosopher, abolitionist, naturalist, tax resister, and historian. Leading transcendentalist. Best known for his book Walden and his essay called Resistance to Civil Government. He could not obey laws he thought were unjust.
Why did many people flock to California during the 1840s? Gold Rush
What was the Cottage Industry? An industry where the creation of products and services is home-based, rather than factory-based.
What was the Monroe Doctrine? foreign policy statement by President James Monroe stating that 1) US would not interfere in European affairs, 2) that the western hemisphere was closed to colonization and/or interference by European nations.
What does the term impressment mean? seizing against their will and forcing them to serve in the military or other public service.
What did Lincoln reiterate in his famous Gettysburg Address? Nov 1863 people gathered to dedicate the Soldiers' National Cemetery. He said, "These dead shall not have died in vain... government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth."
What is transcendentalism? philosophical movement of 1820s and 1830s. The movement was a reaction to or protest against the general state of intellectualism and spirituality. Core belief was inherent goodness of people and nature.
What was the Second Great Awakening? Religious meetings, called revivals, that were popular in early 1800s. People traveled far to hear certain preachers. It was a time of great interest in religion.
What was the Dawes Act? In 1887, law passed dividing reservation lands into small farms. Intended to turn Native Americans into individual farmers. Government hoped to destroy tribal way of life.
What was the Freedmen's Bureau? In March 1865, Lincoln and Congress created this to help African Americans adjust to life after slavery. It provided food, clothing and medical care to poor Southerners. It helped set up schools, etc.
Who was Hiram Rhodes Revels? first African- American Senator, won notice for speaking out against racial segregation
What was the Era of Good Feelings? The happy end of the War of 1812 led to this era. A period in which all Americans belonged to the same political party, the Democratic-Republicans. Pride in the nation surged.
Identify John James Audubon. Artist who specialized in painting wild fowl. He had such works as birds of america. Ironically, he shot birds for sport when he was young. Audubon Society for the Protection of Birds was named after him.
What is judicial review? The Supreme Court's power to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional.
Why was the Election of 1824 called the "corrupt bargain"? In 1824 election, Jackson received plurality or largest share of the popular vote. No candidate got majority, or more than half, of electoral votes. House of Rep must choose president. Jackson's followers felt Clay & Adams made "corrupt bargain" to win
What does the term suffrage mean? the right to vote
What does the term sectionalism mean? rivalry based on the special interests of different areas
What is a protective tariff? a tax on imported goods that raises the price of imports so people will buy domestic goods
List first 7 presidents in order. 1) George Washington, 2) John Adams, 3) Thomas Jefferson, 4) James Madison, 5) James Monroe, 6) John Quincy Adams, 7) Andrew Jackson
Explain the difference between a primary and secondary source. Primary sources are original records or first- hand testimony of an event under investigation. Secondary sources are writings and interpretations of later writers and historians who reviewed information in primary sources.
What was your favorite thing we studied this year? Fort Sumter
What was your least favorite thing we studied this year? government structure
Explain the Dred Scott v. Sanford case including why the case was filed and what the outcome was. A slave (Dred Scott) who had resided in a free state and territory (where it was not allowed) was not thereby entitled to his freedom; that African Americans were not and could never be citizens of the U.S.
List the terms of the Missouri Compromise. 1) CA admitted Union as free state 2) TX/NM border; organized NM territory - slavery decided by residents 3) Utah: slavery decided by residents 4) strengthened Fugitive Slave Act: penalties who aided runaway slaves 5) outlawed buy/sell slaves @Capital
Make chart outlining the party platforms of the Federalists and Democratic-Republicans. Federalists: Hamilton, strong/central govt, manuf/industry, bank, loose interpretation of Constitution, British alliance Democratic-Republicans: Jefferson, strong state govt, farmers backbone of US, strict interpretation of Constitution, French ally
Who was the author of Uncle Tom's Cabin? Harriet Beecher Stowe
What was the significance of the novel Uncle Tom's Cabin? It changed forever how Americans viewed slavery, the system that treated people as property.
Describe what happened in the Whiskey Rebellion and why it was significant. Washington made new taxes to help pay off war debt, farmers who grew whiskey were angry because they couldn't afford it. It was significant because it proved that the US govt was willing and able to suppress violent opposition with military force.
What is civic virtue? The democratic ideas, practices, and values that are at the heart of citizenship in a free society.
What is civil disobedience? refusing to obey laws considered unjust.
What was the Temperance Movement? A social movement that called for the ban of alcohol sales and consumption.
What was the importance of the Battle of New Orleans during the War of 1812? It was the battle that made Andrew Jackson a hero, and it took place after the war had ended.
What does Washington talk about in his Farewell Address? It was a speech in which he warned the countries not to form alliances with foreign countries and to not allow political parties to tear apart the country.
What two members of Washington's cabinet were responsible for the formation of the first political parties and what were their cabinet positions? Federalist - Hamilton (Sec of Treasury), industrialized economy, strong central govt, national bank, high tariffs, loose interp of Constitution Dem-Republicans: Jefferson (Sec of State), agri economy, state govt, lower tariffs, strict interp Constituti
List & describe 4 main issues of Jackson's presidency. As president, he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws and increased presidential powers
List and describe the significance of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments. 13th: banned slavery 14th: defined a citizen as any person born in or naturalized in the US (overturning the Dred Scott v. Sandford Supreme Court ruling 15th: prohibited govts from denying citizens right to vote based on race, color, or past servitude
What was the Homestead Act? Several US federal laws that gave an applicant ownership of land, typically called a "homestead", at little or no cost.
What does the term "Manifest Destiny" mean? The 19th century doctrine or belief that the expansion of the U.S. throughout the American continents was both justified and inevitable.
What were the reasons for the Manifest Destiny? Providing new land for farmers, spreading business opportunities, and opening new trade market.
Explain the case Worcester v. Georgia. Cherokee Indians were entitled to federal protection from the actions of state governments which would infringe on the tribe's sovereignty. Jackson ignored it.
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