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9th Grade SS

Final Exam Review - Vocabulary

Polytheism a belief in many gods or goddesses
Monotheism a belief in one god or goddess
Culture The shared beliefs, customs, practices, and social behavior of a particular nation or people
Ethnocentrism A belief in the superiority of a certain ethnic group or race.
Cultural Diffusion the spread of ideas or products from one culture to another through contact such as trade or war.
Imperialism The complete control of a weaker nation’s social, economic, and political life by a stronger nation.
Mercantilism The policy of building a nation's wealth by exporting more goods than it imports.
Under Mercantilism, how do colonies serve the parent country? Colonies supply their parent nations with raw materials that are used to produce finished goods, and then exported back to the colonies. Colonies not only served as a source for the raw materials, but also as an exclusive market for the parent country.
Feudalism A social, political, and economic system that dominated all aspects of medieval European life.
Great Rift Valley 4,000 miles; Middle East to Mozambique; formed by plate techtonics
Hinduism A polytheistic religion that was formed from a variety of different religious practices. In Hinduism, salvation is achieved through a spiritual oneness of the soul, atman, with the ultimate reality of the universe, Brahma.
In Hinduism, how does one achieve the goal of salvation (a spiritual oneness with the sole)? To achieve this goal, the soul must obtain moksha, or liberation from the samsara, the endless cycle of birth, death, and rebirth.
What do Hindus believe about reincarnation? As a result of these basic teachings, Hindus believe in reincarnation, which is influenced by karma (material actions resulting from the consequences of previous actions), and dharma (fulfilling one's duty in life).
What is ahimsa? Because all forms of animal life possess souls, Hindus believe in ahimsa, or that all life is sacred. and should not be harmed.
Under the Hindu belief of ahimsa, what is one animal that is considered extremely sacred? In fact, one animal which Hindus consider to be extremely sacred is the cow. The peaceful and contented existence of cows is considered virtuous by Hindus and would represent a rewarding reincarnation for a soul.
Why are most Hindus vegetarians? Most Hindus are vegetarians so that they do not harm other living beings.
What provides the religious justification of the rigid social structure known as the caste system? The belief in reincarnation, karma, and dharma provides the religious justification for the existence of the rigid social structure known as the Caste System.
Buddhism Buddhism developed in India, and is based on many of the core concepts of Hinduism.. Buddhists believe in an endless cycle of reincarnation, or samsara, which is similar to beliefs of Hinduism.
How does Buddhism differ from Hinduism? Buddhists do not believe that deities are responsible for the phenomenon. In addition, the Caste System is rejected by Buddhists who believe instead that one is reincarnated until they can achieve nirvana, best described as spiritual enlightenment.
Taoism The Chinese philosophy of Taoism (or Daoism) developed in the latter part of the Chou Dynasty, during a period of turmoil. It represents a naturalistic ideal of how one should live their life.
What does the Chinese term Tao translate too in English? "the way"
What does the philosophy of Taoism teach? The philosophy teaches that nature has a "way" in which it moves, and that people should passively accept the "way" of nature, rather than resist it.
In Taoism, what is wu-wei? Wu-wei, which translates to "not doing" means that people should not act unnaturally by doing things, but rather should openly accept the natural way.
What does Taoism emphasis a link between? An emphasis is placed on the link between people and nature. Taoism teaches that this link lessened the need for rules and order, and leads one to a better understanding of the world.
Created by: pieronek



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