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AP BIO Final

22

QuestionAnswer
Catastrophism, meaning the regular occurrence of geological or meteorological disturbances (catastrophes), was Cuvier's attempt to explain the existence of fossil record
Which pair would have been likely to agree that strata such as those depicted here were deposited gradually over long periods of time by subtle mechanisms that are still at work? Hutton and Lyell
Which of the events described below agrees with the idea of catastrophism? sudden demise
What was the prevailing notion prior to the time of Lyell and Darwin? few thousand years old and unchanging
During a study session about evolution, one of your fellow students remarks, "The giraffe .." Which statement is most likely to be helpful in correcting this student's misconception? Characteristics
Which group is composed entirely of individuals who maintained that species are fixed (i.e., unchanging)? Aristotle, Linnaeus, and Cuvier
In the mid-1900s, the Soviet geneticist Lysenko believed that his winter wheat plants, exposed to ever-colder temperatures, would eventually give rise to ever more cold-tolerant winter wheat. Lamarck
Who would have proposed that the boundaries between each stratum mark the occurrence of different localized floods? Cuvier
Which stratum should contain the greatest proportion of extinct organisms? D
If "x" indicates the location of fossils of two closely related species, then fossils of their most-recent common ancestor are most likely to occur in which stratum? C
Darwin's mechanism of natural selection required long time spans in order to modify species. From whom did Darwin get the concept of Earth's ancient age? Charles Lyell
As a young biologist, Charles Darwin had expected the living plants of temperate South America would resemble those of temperate Europe, but he was surprised biogeography
Which of these naturalists synthesized a concept of natural selection independently of Darwin? Alfred Wallace
Charles Darwin was the first person to propose a mechanism that was supported by evidence
In Darwin's thinking, the more closely related two different organisms are, the more recently they shared a common ancestor
Which of these conditions should completely prevent the occurrence of natural selection in a population over time? All variation
Natural selection is based on all of the following except individuals adapt
Which of the following represents an idea that Darwin learned from the writings of Thomas Malthus? Populations
Which statement about natural selection is most correct? Well-adapted
Given a population that contains genetic variation, what is the correct sequence of the following events, under the influence of natural selection? 2, 4, 1, 3
A biologist studied a population of squirrels for 15 years. the one with all (longest answer choice)
To observe natural selection's effects on a population, which of these must be true? One must observe more than one generation of the population, and the population must contain genetic variation.
If the HMS Beagle had completely bypassed the Galapagos Islands, Darwin would have had a much poorer understanding of the ability of populations
During drought years on the Galapagos, small, easily eaten seeds become rare, leaving mostly large, hard-cased seeds that only birds with large beaks can eat. If a drought persists for several should one expect to result from natural selection? (longest answer choice)
Which of the following statements is an inference of natural selection? Subsequent
Which of the following must exist in a population before natural selection can act upon that population? Genetic variation among individuals
Which of Darwin's ideas had the strongest connection to Darwin having read Malthus's essay on human population growth? Struggle for existence
Which pair would probably have agreed with the process that is depicted by this tree? Lamarck and Wallace
How many separate species, both extant and extinct, are depicted in this tree? 6
According to this tree, what percent of the species seem to be extant (i.e., not extinct)? 66%
Which of the five common ancestors, labeled V - Z, has given rise to the greatest number of species, both extant and extinct? Both X and Y
Which of the five common ancestors, labeled V - Z, has been least successful in terms of the percent of its derived species that are extant? W
Which of the five common ancestors, labeled V - Z, has been most successful in terms of the percent of its derived species that are extant? Z
Evolutionary trees such as this are properly understood by scientists to be hypotheses
In a hypothetical environment, fishes called pike-cichlids are visual predators of algae-eating fish Selection for larger female
Which statement best describes the evolution of pesticide resistance in a population of insects? Offspring
DDT was once considered a "silver bullet" None
Some members of a photosynthetic plant species are genetically resistant to an herbicide, while other members of the same species are not resistant to the herbicide. Which combination of events 1 and 4
If 3TC resistance is costly for HIV III
Of the following anatomical structures, which is homologous to the wing of a bird? Flipper
If two modern organisms are distantly related in an evolutionary sense, then one should expect that If two modern organisms are distantly related in an evolutionary sense, then one should expect that they should share
Structures as different as human arms, bat wings, and dolphin flippers contain many of the same bones, these bones having developed from very similar embryonic tissues. How do biologists interpret these similarities? By identifying the bones as being homologous, and by proposing that humans, bats, and dolphins share a common ancestor.
Over evolutionary time, many cave-dwelling organisms have lost their eyes. Tapeworms have lost their digestive systems. Whales have lost their hind limbs. How can natural selection account for these losses? Under particular circumstances
Which of the following pieces of evidence most strongly supports the common origin of all life on Earth? use essentially the same genetic code
Logically, which of these should cast the most doubt on the relationships depicted by an evolutionary tree? Logically, which of these should cast the most doubt on the relationships depicted by an evolutionary tree? Relationships
Which of the following statements most detracts from the claim that the human appendix is a completely vestigial organ? The appendix has a substantial amount
Members of two different species possess a similar-looking structure that they use in a similar fashion to perform the same function. Which information would best help distinguish between an explanation based on homology versus one based on The two species share
Ichthyosaurs were aquatic dinosaurs. examples of convergent evolution, and
It has been observed that organisms on islands are different from, but closely related to, similar forms found on the nearest continent. This is taken as evidence that island forms and mainland forms descended
Monkeys of South and Central America have prehensile tails, Biogeography
The theory of evolution is most accurately described as an overarching explanation
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