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Humanities 1010-RODP

Humanities 1010 RODP Module 1

What is meant by the term "humanities?" Anything ever made or thought by humans that reveals our history and development of our existence. The term humanities generally encompasses the areas of art, literature, architecture, philosophy, history, psychology, political science, and theology.
What is meant by "culture?" The language, knowledge, morals, manners, technology, and arts of a people.
What is meant by "values?" How you act as a good citizen; how you maintain the culture of your people.
What is the "fertile crescent?" The area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
What is Mesopotamia? Literally, "land between two rivers," it is the area between the Tigris and Euphrates that served as the cradle of civilization where the Sumerian, Babylonian, and Assyrian cultures originated.
What is important about the transition from hunting to farming cultures? Humans no longer had to chase their food but could cultivate it. This led to establishment of permanent settlements (villages).
Explain the development of civilization. When a group decides to settle together, they will build shelters, establish a form of government, establish trade practices, and establish worship/religious practices.
What is the significance of the cave paintings at Lascaux? They reveal human creativity of an early age, possibly recording hunting feats or a mystical/religious wish for power over the prey.
What is the significance of the Venus of Willendorf? The figure is a creative effort from an early age that is possibly a depiction of a fertility goddess or charm. Could signify the worship of mother, Earth, or womanhood from an early culture.
What is cuneiform writing? The earliest writing in Mesopotamia; a picture writing invented by the Sumerians who wrote on clay tablets using long reeds. The word comes from "cuneus," wedge, and "forma," shape. This was a picture language that was more abstract than hieroglyphs.
What is the Epic of Gilgamesh? An ancient Sumerian story written in cuneiform on 12 clay tablets, it is the story of the King of Uruk, somewhere between 2750 and 2500 BCE.
What is significant about the Code of Hammurabi? Laws written down by Hammurabi, the Babylonian king from 1795-1750 BC, are the earliest-known example of a ruler proclaiming publicly an entire body of laws so that all might know what was required of them. Carved on a black stone monument, 8 feet high.
What is a stele? Large stone tablet with words and pictures carved on it.
What were ziggurats? Stepped-platform temples built by Sumerians, Babylonians, and Assyrians, from the 3rd millenium BC. Thought to be related to religious rites.
What was the significance of the Nile River to Egypt? The river's flooding provided rich silt for farming and water for the crops. Civilization could not have survived easily in the desert of Egypt without the Nile's waters.
What was the innundation in Egypt? The yearly flooding of the Nile River.
What was a pharaoh? The absolute ruler in ancient Egypt. Came to power by birth and ruled as a god, specifically, the god Horus. When he died, he became Osiris.
What was a mastaba? Low, flat stone buildings used as tombs in ancient Egypt. The word mastaba means "bench." Mastabas were found dating to about 1700 BC, or the Middle Kingdom.
What is the step pyramid? Credited to Imhotep, it is located in Saqqara, close to present-day Cairo. Looks like a layer cake but in a pyramidal shape.
What are the pyramids of Giza? The three pyramids built by Cheops (Khufu),(known as the Great Pyramid), Chefren (Khafre), and Mycessnus (Menkaure).
What is the Sphinx? The part man, part lion stone figure that rests in the desert near the pyramids of Giza.
Who was Imhotep? Credited with the building of the step pyramid, he has been called a doctor, priest, architect, scribe, and vizier to King Djoser.
What is mummification? A method of preserving the body in the belief in an afterlife.
What are some of the Egyptian burial rituals? The body had to be preserved to preserve the soul for the afterlife. Food and servant statues, useful items were buried with the body.
Who are Isis and Osiris? Osiris, king of the underworld, died and was reborn because of the intervention of Isis, his sister and wife. She was the dominant Mother God. Their story parallels the yearly rebirth of Egypt from the Nile flood.
Who are Ra, Horus, Set, and Anubis? Ra was the sun god/creator. Set was the evil brother of Osiris. Anubis, portrayed by a jackal, was god of the dead. Horus, the falcon, was the son of Isis and Osiris and symbolized the spiritual afterlife.
What was the Egyptian Book of the Dead? A sacred text of funeral rites. Also known as the Pyramid Texts.
What was natron? Sodium salts used as a drying agent for the body and organs in mummification. It had antiseptic properties so it prevented bacteria from decomposing the body.
What are canopic jars? The urns where body organs were stored within an Egyptian tomb.
Who was Ma'at? The goddess of cosmic and spiritual truth who weighed the heart against a feather to determine worthiness.
What is meant by ka? The part of the soul that left the body when a person died; the life force.
What is the Valley of the Kings? Where the royal tombs were built in pyramids near Thebes.
Who was Tutankhamen? A young pharaoh whose tomb was found with treasure intact by Howard Carter in 1922.
What is the Rosetta Stone? A decree of the priests of Egypt in support of King Ptolemy V written in Greek, Demotic, and Hieroglyphs and discovered in 1799.
What are hieroglyphs? Pictorial writing of Egypt that consists of ideograms rather than a true alphabet.
Created by: bburke