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World War 2

KMLHSJAH C23-24 World War II

TermDefinition
blitzkrieg This type of warfare featured an overwhelming combination of air attack and fast moving armored strikes.
totalitarianism This theory of government proposes that a single party or leader controls the economic, social, and cultural lives of the people.
Benito Mussolini This man founded the Fascist Party in Italy in 1919 and became a dictator in the late 20’s.
Adolf Hitler This man joined the Nazi party shortly after World War I and eventually gained control of the party.
anti-Semitic This is a prejudice, often violent, against Jewish people.
appeasement This is a policy of granting concessions to an enemy in the hope that peace can be maintained.
Munich Pact This agreement was signed to settle the crisis over Czechoslovakia, by which the Sudetenland was ceded to Germany.
Allies This alliance of nations, consisting of England, United States, France, Russia, and other nations, defended Europe against the onslaught of Nazism.
Neutrality Act of 1939 This allowed belligerent nations to buy goods and arms in the United States if they paid cash and carried the merchandise on their own ships.
Tripartite Treaty This created an alliance among Germany, Italy, and Japan.
Lend-Lease Act This authorized FDR to “sell, transfer title to, exchange, …, or otherwise dispose of, to any such government any defense article” whenever he thought it was “necessary in the interests of the defense of the United States.”
Pearl Harbor This base was secretly attacked to prevent Americans from mounting a strong resistance to Japanese expansion.
WAC This auxiliary corps supplied clerical workers, truck drivers, instructors, and lab technicians for the U. S. army
Battle of Coral Sea This was the first sea battle in which enemy warships never sighted one another.
Fascism This philosophy of government stresses the glory of the state, unquestioning obedience to its leader, subordination of the individual will to the state's authority, and harsh suppression of dissent.
Selective Service Act This law passed by the Congress on September 16, 1940, became the first peacetime conscription in United States history.
Neville Chamberlain This British Prime Minister, together with the French Prime Minister, agreed to allow Hitler to annex the Sudetenland.
Brown Shirts This paramilitary organization played a key role in Hitler's rise to power in the 1930s. Many of its leaders were executed on what is known as the Night of the Long Knives.
Joseph Stalin This man was the ruthless dictator of the Soviet Union during World War II.
Hideki Tojo This Japanese minister of war pushed the Japanese government not to accept any compromise with the United States.
December 7, 1941 “Yesterday…--a date which will live in infamy—the United States was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan….” FDR
wolf pack This term refers to groups of U-boats working together to maximize their efforts at destroying merchant shipping to England.
Winston Churchill He was the Prime Minister of England during World War II.
Kristallnacht In 1938 during this rampage and attack thousands of Jewish business and places of worship were damaged, 100 Jews were killed, and 26,000 Jews were imprisoned.
ghettos These were sections of a city to which a specific ethnic group was confined. Usually they were surrounded by walls or fences.
Axis Powers This was the military alliance among Germany, Italy, and Japan.
pacifists This term refers to people who are averse to the use of military force.
Wendell Willkie This man was Roosevelt’s Republican opponent in the 1940 election.
Atlantic Charter After a conference aboard USS Augusta at Placentia Bay, Newfoundland, on August 9, 1941, this blueprint for the postwar world was issued.
Anschluss This term refers to a political union, especially the one unifying Nazi Germany and Austria in 1938.
Husband E. Kimmel He was the commander of the Pacific Fleet at the time of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
Coral Sea This naval battle fought to prevent the Japanese from invading Port Moresby was the first time that the Japanese advance was halted.
anti-Semitism This term refers to the hostility toward or prejudice against Jews.
James Doolittle On April 18, 1942, this man led a group of 16 American bombers on an air raid of Tokyo. This was the first attack on Japanese soil.
Chester William Nimitz He was appointed commander in chief of the Pacific Fleet and subsequently of the Pacific Ocean Areas after the debacle of Pearl Harbor.
Nanking (Nanjing) After this Chinese city fell on December 13, 1937, the Japanese army committed numerous atrocities, such as rape, looting, arson and the execution of prisoners of war and civilians for the next 6 weeks.
Charles de Gaulle This man became the leader of the Free French after France’s surrender to Germany.
September 1, 1939 This date marks the beginning of World War II with the invasion of Poland.
Lend Lease Act This law allowed the President to send weapons to England regardless of her ability to pay.
Spanish Civil War This conflict attracted interest and involvement from nations like Germany which saw this as an opportunity to try out some of their weapons.
Luftwaffe This name referred to the German air force.
Vichy This name refers to the part of France that was under the control of French officials who cooperated with Hitler.
Quarantine Speech This address was a response to aggressive actions by Italy and Japan and suggested the use of economic pressure against aggressive nations to stop the spread of war.
Haile Selassie This Ethiopian emperor personally asked the League of Nations for help when the Italians invaded his country.
Mein Kampf This book, written while Hitler was in prison, outlined Hitler’s major political ideas.
non-aggression pact This agreement established a ten year “peace” between Germany and the Soviet Union but contained a secret part in which Hitler agreed to give the Soviet Union parts of soon to be conquered territory in eastern Europe.
George C. Marshall This man was the Army Chief of Staff during World War II.
Oveta Culp Hobby This colonel was the first director of WACs.
Douglas MacArthur In 1942 this man was made the supreme commander of Allied forces in the southwest Pacific.
USS Panay The sinking of this United States gunboat on the Yangtze River in China brought profuse apologies from the Japanese people and a $2 million check from the Japanese government.
Gerald Nye In 1934–36, this man was chairman of the Special Senate Committee Investigating the Munitions Industry.
Munich Conference At this meeting, to which Czechoslovakia was not invited, Hitler was given the Sudetenland.
Eben Emael This fort in Belgium which supposedly was impregnable was conquered in barely more than one day when 77 German paratroopers landed by using gliders on the roof the fortress.
Havana Conference At this meeting, a Pan American Conference, the U. S. warned Germany that it could take over orphan colonies in the Americas.
Operation Sea Lion This is the name Hitler gave to his tentative plans to invade England.
Dunkirk Operation Dynamo rescued over 300,000 soldiers from this area of France.
Isoroku Yamamoto He didn't want to go to war with the United States, but planned the sneak attack on Pearl Harbor and then led the Japanese navy to its early victories in World War II.
Bataan Death March In April 1942, 70,000 U.S. and Filipino prisoners of war captured by the Japanese in the Philippines were force-marched 63 miles to a prison camp.
USS Hornet This aircraft carrier ferried the 16 B-25 bombers which Doolittle used for his raid on Tokyo.
War Production Board This agency, created by FDR in January 1942, was set up to regulate the use of raw materials and set priorities of manufacturing for companies.
Neville Chamberlain This British prime minister sacrificed the Sudentenland to preserve peace and believed that the Munich Pact had secured “peace for our time.”
December 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor is bombed.
Battle of Coral Sea Although technically a draw, this battle stopped the southward expansion of the Japanese.
Rosie the Riveter Working women of the war were represented by this symbolic figure.
Enrico Fermi Together with his research team at the University of Chicago, this man in December 1942 demonstrated the first self‐sustaining chain reaction.
unconditional surrender This refers to giving up without the victors giving any concessions.
saturation bombing This is an attempt to inflict maximum damage on an enemy by destroying not only industry but also civilians.
strategic bombing This is an attempt to destroy only an enemy’s political and manufacturing centers.
Chester Nimitz This man became the commander of the navy in the Pacific after Pearl Harbor.
Battle of Midway This battle is often thought of as the turning point of the war against Japan since Japan was now on the defensive.
Office of War Information This group worked with the media to encourage support of the war effort.
Executive Order 8802 This banned discriminatory employment practices by Federal agencies and all unions and companies engaged in war related work.
442nd Regimental Combat Team This was a unit of Japanese Americans who fought in Italy and became the most decorated military unit in American history.
rationing This is a limiting of the amount of certain goods that people can buy.
Executive Order 9066 FDR designated certain areas as war zones from which anyone might be removed for any reason.
D-Day This is the name given to the date on which England and the United States would finally invade mainland Europe from the west.
Harry S. Truman This man had the responsibility of deciding whether or not to use the atomic bombs on Japan.
kamikaze This word which literally means “divine wind” refers to the pilots who committed suicide by attempting to crash their planes into American ships, especially.
Albert Einstein This man wrote to FDR informing him of efforts in Nazi Germany to purify U-235 with which could be used to build an atomic bomb. Shortly thereafter that the U.S. Government began the serious undertaking known as the Manhattan Project.
J. Robert Oppenheimer This man ran the scientific aspect of the project to build an atomic bomb.
Holocaust In the 1950s the term came to be applied primarily to the destruction of the Jews of Europe under the Nazi regime, and it is also employed in describing the annihilation of other groups of people in World War II.
Nuremberg Laws These denied German citizenship to Jews, banned marriage between Jews and non-Jews, and segregated Jews at every level of society.
Kristallnacht This “Night of the Broken Glass” occurred on November 9, 1938.
genocide This is the purposeful annihilation of a racial, political, or cultural group.
Nuremberg Trials In these Nazi leaders were held responsible for war crimes especially their treatment of other races.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights This document condemns slavery and torture, upholds freedom of speech and religion, and affirms that “everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and his family.”
United Nations This organization was established on the basis of cooperation to succeed at settling disputes among nations.
GATT This was a 1948 treaty designed to expand world trade by reducing tariffs.
superpower This is a country with the ability to transcend most other countries.
death camp These were places which were specifically designated for exterminating prisoners.
concentration camp These were places that supposedly would turn prisoners into useful members of society; they were not necessarily designed to exterminate prisoners.
internment This is a temporary imprisonment of a specific group of people.
Tuskegee Airmen This fighter squadron had the distinction of flying more than 1500 missions over Europe and never losing a bomber.
Project Trinity This was the name given to the first test of the atom bomb.
July 16, 1945 On this date the world's first test of an atomic weapon was conducted at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico.
El Alamein The second of these two battles routed Rommel's vastly outnumbered forces and began driving the Germans back into Libya.
Midway This naval battle has been suggested as the turning point in the war in the Pacific. Japan lost 4 aircraft carriers in the battle while the United States lost the Yorktown.
Casablanca Conference At this meeting in Morocco Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill declared a policy of unconditional surrender for “all enemies,” and agreed that Italy would be invaded first before opening a second front in France.
Flag raising Iwo Jima February 23, 1945
U. S. Plane attack Japanese Carriers in the Battle of Midway June 4, 1942
FDR dies April 12, 1945
The battle for Guadalcanal begins August 7, 1942
The Great Marianas Turkey Shoot This was part of the Battle of the Philippine Sea which effectively spelled the end of whatever carrier strength the Japanese Navy had since 273 of Japan’s 373 attacking planes were destroyed.
Enola Gay This B-29 dropped the first atomic bomb on Japan.
August 6, 1945 This is the date on which the first atomic bomb was dropped on Japan.
Colonel Paul Tibbets This man was the pilot of the first aircraft to drop an atomic bomb.
Hiroshima This Japanese city was the first to experience the terrible power of the atomic bomb.
Manhattan Project This was the top-secret American program to build an atomic bomb.
ghost army They were 1000 mid-century special effects wizards and their mission was to convince the enemy that they were tens of thousands of soldiers preparing to launch an attack.
Operation Overlord This was the plan to launch a large-scale invasion of mainland Europe.
Tuskegee Airmen This was a segregated unit of African Americans who were the first ever to receive training as pilots in the U. S. military.
Yalta Conference This meeting in the Crimea of the “Big Three” was to decide what to do with the soon-to-be-conquered Germany.
June 6, 1944 This date marked the beginning phase of Operation Overlord.
code talkers This name was given to a marine group of Navajo whose main job was translating messages into a coded version of the Navajo language.
Iwo Jima This battle, part of which featured fighting on Mount Suribachi cost 7000 American lives but gave the U. S. an airfield that was only about 750 miles from Japan.
May 8, 1945 On this day the surrender of the German force took effect—V-E Day.
DDE This man commanded Operation Torch and Operation Overlord.
Battle of the Bulge This was the German army’s last major offensive. The attack was blunted at the Battle of Bastogne.
island hopping (leap frogging) This strategy, employed by the Allies of World War II Combined Chiefs of Staff, was to bypass heavily fortified Japanese positions and instead concentrate the limited Allied resources on strategically important islands that were not well defended.
Erwin Rommel This German general, nicknamed the “Desert Fox,” led the German campaign to capture all of North Africa.
Bock’s Car This was the plane that carried the second atomic bomb to Japan.
Fat Man This was the name of the plutonium bomb which became the second atomic bomb to be dropped on Japan.
Major Charles Sweeney This man piloted the plane that dropped the second atomic device on Japan.
Nagasaki This city became the victim of the second atomic bomb because the primary city of Kokura was obscured by clouds.
Bracero Program The program was designed initially to bring a few hundred experienced Mexican agricultural laborers to harvest sugar beets in the Stockton, California area.
War refugee Board This organization was created by FDR in January 1944 to rescue or aid civilian victims of the Nazi and Axis powers.
Guadalcanal The United States conducted the first amphibious landing of the war in the Pacific and fought one of the most hotly contested campaigns for control of the ground, sea and skies of the war.
Okinawa This battle which began April 1, 1945, and ended June 22, 1945, resulted in 12,520 Army and navy dead, 2,930 Marines killed, 110,000 Japanese dead, and 80,000 civilians killed.
Leyte Gulf This was the largest naval battle in history, October 23-25, 1944, and was precipitated by the U.S. invasion of the Philippines during World War II.
George Patton Known as "Old Blood and Guts," this man headed the I Armored Corps in the successful invasion of North Africa in November 1942.
USS Missouri This vessel was the site of the formal signing of the peace treaty with Japan.
August 15, 1945 This date marks the victory in Japan—V-J Day.
Winter War This 4-5 month conflict resulted in Finland ceding part of the Karelian Isthmus to the Soviet Union.
September 2, 1945 On this date Japan formally surrendered to the Allies.
Stalingrad This battle marked the farthest extent of the German advance into the Soviet Union. German army led by Friedrich Paulus, surrendered in February 1943.
Created by: jim.haferman