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AICP 2016 Prep Set 6

American Institute of Certified Planners - May 2016 Exam

QuestionAnswer
Who was the father of modern housing code? Lawrence Veiller
Lawrence Veiller Father of modern housing code - social reformer in NY - Exec officer of the Tenement House Committee & drafted the NY state tenement house act which est. basic housing laws such as running water & fire exits
What is Oregon's Measure 37? controversial land-use initiative - substantially red by meas 49 in 2007 - allows prop owners whose land is red by env or other land use reg to claim comp from the state or local gov - if $ isn't given w/in2 years owner can use land as perm when bought
State that experiences largest population increase following Hurricane Katrina Texas with 580,000
Ogliotraphic O Lake: A deep lake with a low supply of nutrients & insignificant organic matter - O: an ecosystem is said to be O if it offers little to sustain life
What is the Hubbert Peak theory? For any given location - the rate of petroleum production follows a bell curve - the peak is the point in time when production reaches its max rate, then after the prod peak it will enter into a decline from which it will not recover
Albedo the fraction of solar energy (shortwave radiation) reflected from the Earth back into space. It is a measure of the reflectivity of the earth's surface. - snow is the most reflective - water absorbs the sunlight
Tax Increment Financing Used with redevelopment of larger properties to bring them back into use
Consensus Conference Used to inform a panel of citizens about a complex technological or scientific issue - allows the panel to formulate a consensus position on the implications of the planning issue
Best part technique for kicking off a process? Town Hall Meeting - can be used to identify key issues
AICP Code of Ethics & Prof Conduct, Section A3 Planners Responsibility to Our Profession & Colleagues includes? We shall educate the public about planning issues and their relevance to our everyday lives
Which US Supreme Court case was responsible for putting forth the "severity of the burden" rather than the "substantially advances" test for takings cases? Lingle v. Chevron Sub Advances case: Agins v. Tiburon
Joint Fact Finding Method Involves scientists from a wide range or perspectives - seeks to overcome conflicting science, produce new data, identify research gaps & create joint interpretation of the data
Hoshin Planning Approach Dev, 60s by Hoshin Kanri - managing work towards a key strategic initiative - aligns all parts of an org to accomplish an important objective
Residential Land Use Trip Rates/Dwelling Unit 9.55 Single-family - 7.44 Planned Unit Development - 6.47 Apartment - 5.86 Condo/Townhouse - 4.81 Mobile Home Park
Retail Land Use Trip Rates/1,000 sq. ft. GFA Under 100k sq. ft. 70.7 - 100k to 500k 38.7 - 500k to 1 m 32.1 - over 1 m 28.6
Office Land Use Trip Rates/1,000 sq. ft. GFA Medical Office 34.17 - Business Park 14.37 - General Office 11.85 - Office Park 11.42 - R&D 7.70
Restaurant Land Use Trip Rates/1,000 sq. ft. of GFA Fast Food w/out drive thru 786.22 - Fast Food w/drive thru 632.12 - High Turnover sit down 205.36 - Quality Restaurant 96.51
Bank Land Use Trip Rates/1,000 sq. ft. of GFA Drive-thru 265.21 - Walk in 140.61
Hotel/Motel Land Use Trip Rates/room Motel 10.9 - Hotel 8.7
Park & Recreation Land Use Trip Rates Golf Course 37.59/hole - County Park 2.99/acre - Marina 2.96/berth - City Park 2.23/acre - State Park .5/acre
Hospital Land Use Trip Rates Clinic 23.79/1,000 sq. ft. - General 11.77/bed - Nursing Home 2.6/occupied bed
Educational Land Use Trip Rates Comm College 12.57/1,000 sq. ft. - 10.9 High School - 10.72 Elementary School - College 2.37/student
Airport Land Use Trip Rates Commercial 104.73/average flight/day - General Aviation 2.59/average flight/day
Industrial Land Use Trip Rates/1,000 sq. ft. GFA General Light Industrial 6.97 - Warehouse 4.88 - Manufacturing 3.85 - Heavy Industrial 1.5
STELLA software package Computer-aided negotiation - allows models to be quickly developed and allows participants to search for alt that can best meet needs - a practical way to dynamically visualize and communicate how complex systems work
Participatory Technology Assessment a scientific, interactive and communicative process that aims to contribute to the formation of public and political opinion on societal aspects of science and technology - study and evaluation of new technologies
Groupware Programs that help people work together collectively while located remotely from each other - technology that specializes in making an org more efficient
Plebiscle A direct vote by which people express their opinion for or against something
How many acres of tribal land in Alaska? 40 million
Book: Edgeless City 2002 - Robert Lang
What is a ZIP Code? Zone Improvement Plan Code - used since 1963 by Post Office
Total acreage of tribal land in US? Total number of reservations? 52 million acres across 275 Native American reservations
Which act created the HOME program? Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act (1990)
Best software program to undertake modeling that allows for analyzation of urban development, considering the interactions between land use, transportation and public policy on a regional scale? UrbanSim
Drosscape an urban design framework that looks at urbanized regions as the waste product of defunct economic and industrial processes - Alan Berger - useful for the redesign and adaptive use of waster landscapes within urbanized regions
What is Wrack? Algae, plant & animal materials that accumulate on beaches at high water marks
Closing air conditioning vents in an unoccupied room can save up to ___% on cooling costs 10%
What is Peak Oil? a situation where the petroleum output is at its maximum with a continued increase in demand
Where is the oldest skyscraper located? Chicago - Home Insurance Building - 1884
Part Technique: City Walk A technique used to sensitize people to community problems and opportunities - a group of leaders re-exp their comm and then draw on observations to recommend planning policies or standards - good with City Councils
Fiscal Impact Analysis: Proportional Valuation Method a fiscal analysis that estimates the average costs of the prop development for non-residential - dev is assigned a portion of the gov costs based on the proportion of the local prop it is on
Fiscal Impact Analysis: Per Capita Multiplier Method Primarily used for residential dev - uses ave gov cost per person and school costs per student multiplied by a proj of the exp number of new people & students to est costs of new dev
Fiscal Impact Analysis: Case Study Method Can be used for res & non-res - involves interviewing local officials and experts to get an estimate of how diff gov bodies will be affected by a dev - expert estimates are then combine to give the overall estimate
Fiscal Impact Analysis: Service Standard Method uses census data to calculate the ave manpower per 1,000 people and capital-to-operating expenditure ratios for 8 municipal functions - expenses are then calc based on exp pop changes, service req, local salaries, statutory oblig & expenses/employee
Fiscal Impact Analysis: Comparable City Method Based on finding a municipality that has a similar pop and growth rate as the city in question would have - underlying assump is that both cities spend similar amounts on municipal & educational expenditures
Fiscal Impact Analysis: Employment Anticipation Method Non-residential - hinges on an est of the # of employees a dev would add to the municipality - est of the add cost for each new emp across municipal sectors are multiplied by the anticipated increase in emp in order to create the total cost for the city
Total acreage of national forestland in the US 191 million
Marriage rates since 1960 Declining - 1960 72% - 2010 51%
Who founded the Congress for the New Urbanism Peter Calthorpe
Types of purification facilities commonly found in a City Filtration Plant, Softening Plant, Deferrization Plant, Demanganization Plant
Lacustrine (Plain) Lakes that get filled by incoming sediment - soil left behind may constitute fertile and productive farm land due to the previous accumulation of lacustrine sediments - in other cases it may become a wetland or a desert
Littoral (Zone) Part of a sea, lake or river that is close to the shore - in coastal zones it extends from the high water mark to shoreline areas that are permanently submerged - aka intertidal zone but the meaning of this zone can extend beyond the intertidal area
Palustrine Wetland includes any inland wetland which lacks flowing water, contains ocean-derived salts in concentrations of less than .5 parts/thousand and is non-tidal - one of 5 types of wetlands (Marine, Estuarine, Riverine & Lacustrine)
DIscrete Variable One that is fixed & a whole number
Book: The City is Growth Machine 1987 - Logan & Molotch - reversed the course of urban theory by pointing out that land parcels were not empty fields awaiting human action but were assoc with special interests (commercial, sentimental & psychological)
What president founding America's first national wildlife refuge? Theodore Roosevelt - 1903 - Pelican Island - there are 540 refuges in the US today
Enterprise Fund Used by municipalities as an account to manage the revenues & espenditures of a self-sufficient activity EX: gold course, zoo, parking garage, minor league baseball park
Future Search A future search is a 2 &1/2 day eent designed to resutt in a common vision of the future - the event is org into 5 tasks of 3-4 hours each - create a timeline of the comm, create a group mind gap, ID high diff POV, ID common futures
Smart Decline aka shrinking cities - "right-sizing" - focus priorities on certain areas & accept the city won't be what it was - densify neighborhoods & increase public amenities in those areas to enc people to move there - deconstruct vacant neighborhoods EX: Detroit
The Radiant City Unreleased project by Le Corbusier in 1924 - included: a linear design that is in the shape of a human body, high-rise housing blocks laid out in long lines & significant green space
Who is the person who introduced Satisficing? Herbert Simon - a decision-making strategy that entails searching thru the avail alt until an acceptability threshold is met EX: given the constraints of time, money, resources a planner will make a decision to achieve a given goal
City Functional Movement Based on ideas of Olmstead, Jr & followed his fathers City Beaut ideas - focused on scientific city management emphasizing social science research data - considered the "logical phase" in planning history - inc waste rem, land use, zoning (1915ish)
City Efficient Movement 1890-1932 - argued that aspects of economy, society & gov were riddled with waste & inefficiency & needed to be fixed - develpment & implementation of best practices were needed - eff & econ over beauty - led to SSZEA
Public Health Movement 1840s - NYC - major cholera epidemics, poor sanitation, & dirt, disease & poverty - attempt to raise public morals which led to changes in housing laws to foster better health for the poor
What tribe holds the largest amount of land in the US? How much? Navajo tribe - 16 m acres across New Mexico, AZ & UT
What does the visioning process allow for? Early citizen involvement, impartial leadership, inclusive citizen participation & heavy media involvement
US Census Alternative Measures of Poverty Inflation based on the Consumer Price Index - Consumer Expenditure Survey - Adjustment for Geographic Location - Number of Household Members Working
USGS Map Scales 1:25K 1:50K 1:100K
Plural Planning Associated with Advocacy Planning
Urban Development Action Grant (UDAG) Created by Fed Gov to stimulate economic development in distressed communities by making grants to local gov to make loans to private dev & ind companies to implement econ dev projects & creating new jobs - enc intergov relationships
Crime Prevention through Environmental Design Jacobs had sim ideas - Principles: Natural Surveillance, Territoriality & Natural Access Control - deters criminal behavior thru env design - rely on ability to influence the offenders decision thru built & social env. - eyes on the street mentality
Key Concept of the 1916 NY Zoning Code Established setback requirements at specific heights
Key Agriculture Land Specifics 1/5 of the US is used for crop production 30% of the land area is used for livestock grazing The amount of land used for ag has declined 8% in the last 20 years
Carbon Sequestration involves carbon capture & long-term storage of CO2 - can be large or small scale - small: institute a food diversion program at all city facilities, create an urban forestry program
Tax Increment Financing (TIF) public financing method that is used as a subsidy for redevelopment, infrastructure and other comm-imp projects - provides front end funds in order to assist in large scale redevelopment
The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) is responsible for coordinating which federal programs? National Env Policy Act Clean Air Act Clean Water Act Farm Bill Conservation
Rate of multi-generational households in US 16.7%
Nominal Group Technique Allows for brainstorming for all members of a group to fully participate - there are silent times allowing for idea generation followed by individual sharing of ideas - good for bringing vocal minority and the silent majority together
Enterprise Zone A depressed urban area in which employers receive tax reductions and/or other economic incentives for establishing businesses and employing the disadvantaged
Who developed Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Peter Calthorpe
What is the "push analysis" It determines sales capacity of a market area - determines if the introduction of a new business will generate additional customers
How much solid waste does the typical household create? Several pounds per person per day
Who designed Radburn, NJ? Henry Wright
Cheney v. Village 2 at New Hope 1968 - court found that PUDs are acceptable if the regulations focus on density requirements rather than specific rules for each lot
Coupon Rate The annual rate of interest paid on a bond that a borrower pays to the bond holder
Commercial Trade Area Sizes Super-Regional Mall 5-25 miles Regional Mall 5-15 miles Community Center (Large Neigh Center) 3-6 miles Neighborhood Center 3 miles Strip/Convenience <1 mile
Housing Appeal Boards State-level special appeals boards - can override local housing decisions - sometimes judiciary vs administrative - doesn't solve exclusionary zoning, only manages disputes
Loss of Farmland in US Stats 240 m acres of farmland in US 35k acres of farmland lost per week 5 m acres per year 5-10x as fast as the pop growth rate
Comprehensive Housing Affordability Strategy (CHAS) Req of the Nat Affordale Housing Act 1991 - prereq for receiving fed fund for housing - 14 required elements (how you'll spend the $, why you need it) - if approved the state is cert by HUD & can receive fed funds
Need for Primary & Secondary Standards by EPA with Clean Air Act Primary = necessary to protect the public's health Secondary = necessary to protect the public's welfare
Need for creation of Air Quality Control Regions? regions have similar air pollution problems - either nondeterioration (areas considered clean) or nonattainment (not meeting primary or secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) & require lowest achievable emission rate for new proj
Sate Implementation Plans (Clean Air Act) Req for each state - plans to meet primary & secondary NAAQS
Section 401 Permit Certification of water quality required for discharges into waters of the US by the clean water act - waters of US: interstate waters, tidal waters, wetlands & ephemeral waters (if the support specialized biology)
Section 402 Permit Permits for discharging anu pollutant (except dredge or fill materials) into waters of the US - Includes NPDES permits
Section 404 Permit Required for discharging any dredged or fill materials into waters of the SU - from the army corp of engineers
What is BPT? (Clean Water Act) Best practicable control technology currently available - standard for industrial point-source discharges
What is BCT? (Clean Water Act) best conventional pollutant control technology - standard for sewage discharges
What is BAT? (Clean Water Act) best available technology economically achievable - standards for toxics
Section 208: Clean Water Act Includes planning guidelines for control of non-point sources - also includes BMPs
Cluster Housing dwelling units grouped on certain portions of a site & other areas in common or single-ownership and remain open & free from development - small lots - clustered where land is best for dev - lends to SF or MF development - has been used for affordable hou
National Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 states receive fed fund assistance for coastal zone protection - req. comp plans - Section 305 helps finance plan dev - Section 306 helps finance plan implementation - Section 307 req projects in coast zone to be consistent with plan
Coastal Barriers Resources Act Protects barrier islands as "natural storm protection barriers"
Comprehensive Plan as a basis for zoning? Increasing use of flexible controls - need a test for fairness Increasing adoption of growth management plan - must show evidence of coordinated approach in order to avoid charges of arbitrary & capricious enforcement
Fasano v. Board of County Commissions 1973 - Oregon Supreme Court - "the more drastic the change the greater will be the burden of showing that it is in conformance with the comp plan" - comprehensive plan legal case
Baker v. City of Milwaukee 1975 - Oregon - unequivocally gave comp plan a central role in local planning
Density Control in Non-Residential Uses Lot Coverage - FAR - Impervious Surface Ration (ISR) - Landscape Surface Ration (LSR) - Building Volume Ratio (BVR) - Landscape Volume Ratio (LVR) - Site Volume Ration (SVR) - Land Use Intensity System (LUI)
Devolution Shifting to the states what has been seen for years as a federal responsibility EX: welfare reform, states are given block grants to do what they want instead of specific dollar amounts
Taking gov appropriation of private land, either directly (by acquisition) or indirectly (through restrictive effect of regulation) (regulatory taking)
Eminent Domain the power of the gov to condemn or take property for public use
Just compensation What the gov must pay when it takes private prop under eminent domain power or by regulation - fair market value of the property
Inverse Condemnation The legal action a land owner must institute when gov regulation has taken private prop & the gov hasn't exercised any formal eminent domain proceedings
Common Landfill Terms Tipping point = the charge per ton of garbage del to a landfill site RDF = refuse- derived-fuel (from waste to energy plants) MRFs = materials recovery facilities - where they sort thru waste to find the recyclables or the material that can be energy
Richard Babcock Wrote The Zoning Game in 1980s - how land development occurs from a political perspective
Woodlands, TX Focused on ecological model of development - master planned comm - George Mitchell - heavily forested area
Agrarian Philosophy 1800's - thomas Jefferson & John Hector St. John - based upon an agricultural way of life
Laissez Faire Philosophy 1800s - Adam Smith - advocated for a free market economy
Utopian Planning Theory Visionary - belief that planning is most effective when it proposes sweeping changes that capture the public imagination - Burnham's Chicago plan, Lloyd Wright's Broadacre City plan & Corbusier's are often cited as utopian works
Methodism Planning Theory address situations in which the planning techniques that should be used are known, but the ends that should be achieved by these techniques are not EX: making a pop estimate just to have it when needed
Rust Belt The region straddling the upper NE US, the Great Lakes & the Midwest States referring to economic decline, population loss & urban decay due to the shrinking of its once powerful industrial sector
LUST Leaking Underground Storage Tank
SARA Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act
SOB Sexually Oriented Business
TOADS Temporarily Obsolete Abandoned Derelict Sites
Book: Broadacre City: A New Community Plan Frank Lloyd Wright - utopian - 1930s - socio-econ scheme where each fam would be given 1 acre from fed reserves - auto driven and suburban in nature
Aaron Wildavsky A budget may be characterized as a series of goals with price tags - political scientist - scholar on budgeting & budget theory
Book: Urbanism as a Way of Life Louis Wirth - 1938 - sociologist - concerned with the effects of city life on families
First official & permanent local planning board? Hartford, CT
First Course in City Planning Harvard
First state enabling legislation permitting cities to plan Wisconsin
First National Park Yellowstone 1872
First City Subway Boston
First US Transcontinental Highway Lincoln Hwy - 1913
First Limited Access Highway Bronx River Parkway - 1926
First Historic Preservation Ordinance Charleston, SC 1921
Father of Regional Planning Patrick Geddes
Father of Zoning Edward Bassett
Father of Modern Housing Code Lawrence Veiller
Pioneer of Florida's Growth Management John DeGrove
Passive Park self-generated, requires no administration, walk-up & do, often times dawn to dusk EX: walking on trails, eating lunch at a picnic area, biking on a mtn trail
Active Park Requires admin, scheduled, programmed, involves registration or a fee EX: renting a kayak, organized runs/walks, reserving a picnic area
National Level Planning Grants, programs & policies The Federal Landlord: Bureau of Land Management & National Parks National Defense
Alfred Bettman 1873-1945 - cinn plan 1925 - argued in Euclid v. Ambler (1925) - SSZEA (1924) - SCPEA (1928) - Drafted OH bill in 1915 enabling the creation of local PCs - First president of the ASPO (1934)
First Downtown Pedestrian Mall Kalamazoo Mall, 1956
Father of the Appalachian Trail Benton MacKaye
Father of Public Power David Lilienthal
Father of American Environmentalism George Perkins Marsh
Military Planning Terms AICUZ: Air Installation Compatible Use Zone JLUS: Joint Land Use Study BRAC: Base Re-Alignment & Closure Clear Zone (CZ)
What are sunk costs? Retrospective (past) costs that have already been incurred and cannot be recovered
Book: The Power Broker Robert Moses - massive infrastructure projects (derailed by Jane Jacobs)
Importance of Snail Darter Fish caused delay of the Tellico Dam on the Little TN river in 1973 - found during research related to a NEPA lawsuit was being investigated - lawsuit said that the dam would alter the habitat of the fish to the point of extinction - dam was built eventually
Typical Bond Rating Services Standard & Poors Moodys Best
Present Value determining the current worth of a future stream of revenues or costs: PV = FV/(1+ interest rate) raised to the n power, n=number of years/periods
Edward Bellamy Book: Looking Backward - book about life in 2000 (written in 1888) - home is National Landmark
Gary, IN founded in 1906 by the US Steel Corp as the home for its new plant, Gary Works - faces difficulties of many rust belt states today: unemployment, decaying infrastructure & low literacy & educational attainment levels
Newark, NJ Founded in 1666 by CT Puritans from the New Haven Colony rose as an industrial city in the 19th and early 20th century but dealt with racial tension and urban decline after 1950
Central Business Districts Have changed from dependence on retailing to emphasis on services - retail moved to the suburbs and CBDs saw significant decline
The Federal Agricultural Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 Provided 35 m for state and local PDR programs to maintain agricultural land - interest from farmers far outweighed the available funding - state and local have pres more than 400k acres ($800m spent)
Township Description Example NW 1/4, NE 1/4, Sec. 34, T.3S, R.1W, 1st P.M.". In expanded form this would read "the Northwest quarter of the Northeast quarter of Section 34 of Township 3 South, Range 1 West, first Principal Meridian
Appraisal Terms Unit-in place cost Quantity Survey Cubic Foot Square Foot
What gov action is not a police power? Building Code Regulations
Domain A set of all possible values of a variable
A joist is? Parallel
A Goal is? A direction-setter, an ideal future end, condition or state
An Objective is? A specific end, condition or state that is an intermediate step toward attaining a goal
A Policy is? A specific statement that guides decision making. It indicates a clear commitment of the local legislative body
The Graphic Technique Method for Pop Projection Past trends are extended into the future without good reason - provides reasonable est for whole communities when the target year is 10 years or less in the future
Empowerment Zone An urban area defined as depressed and made eligible for special government assistance for economic development in the form of tax breaks & subsidies
An age group in the 75th percentile? Has 75% of the pop below it - indicates that 75% of the individuals in the set are younger
Tax Increment Financing financing improvements in a specific area with bonds that are secured by increases in property taxes
First President of the APA? M. Brewster Smith
Basic purpose of subdivision law? Regulate the process by which lots are created out of larger tracts - regulates site design & relationships
PSD Standards air quality standards aimed at preventing the significant deterioration of air quality by enforcing stricter controls on new polluters
Discount Rate Rate charged by the Fed Reserve on loans to commercial banks
Gross Density Includes? Streets, Schools, Parks, etc