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US History Sem2

Hoovervilles shantytown built by unemployed destitute people during the 1930s Depression
Lend-Lease Act Congress authorized the sale, lease, transfer or exchange of arms and supplies to any country whose defense the president deems vital to the defense of the United States
Internment Camps forced relocation and incarceration of Japanese Americans in camps during WWII
Marshall Plan initiative in which the US gave $13 billion in economic support to help rebuild Western European economies after WWII
Highway Act of 1956 Amended and supplemented Federal Aid Road Act; authorized appropriations for continuing the construction of highways; amended Internal Revenue Code of 1954; provided additional revenue from taxes on motor fuel, tires, trucks and buses, other
Vietnamization Nixon administration policy to end US involvement in the Vietnam War through a program to expand, equip, and train South Vietnam's forces and assign to them an ever-increasing combat role, while reducing the number of U.S. combat troops
Containment preventing the expansion of a hostile country or influence
Domino Theory speculated that if one country came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution authorized President Johnson to take any measures he believed were necessary to retaliate and promote the maintenance of international peace and security in southeast Asia
McCarthyism the practice of making accusations of subversion or treason without proper regard for evidence; the practice of making unfair allegations or using unfair investigative techniques, especially in order to restrict dissent or political criticism
Red Scare the promotion of fear of a potential rise of communism or radical leftism
Freedom rides civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States in 1961 and following years to challenge the non-enforcement of the United States Supreme Court decisions
Sit-ins tactic of non-violent protest
Bus Boycotts political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system
Brown v. Board of Education, Topeka a landmark case in which the US Supreme Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional
SNCC Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee; important organization of the Civil Rights Movement; emerged from a student meeting organized by Ella Baker held at Shaw University in April 1960
SCLC Southern Christian Leadership Conference; an African-American civil rights organization, closely associated with its first president, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.; had a large role in the American Civil Rights Movement
Nation of Islam an Islamic religious movement founded in Detroit by Wallace D. Fard Muhammad on July 4, 1930
Black Panthers a militant political organization set up in 1966 to fight for black rights
The New Frontier slogan used by President John F. Kennedy to describe his goals and policies; Kennedy maintained that, like frontiersmen in the 19th century, Americans of the 20th century had to rise to new challenges, such as achieving equality of opportunity for all
The Great Society a set of domestic programs launched by President Johnson in 1964–65 to eliminate poverty and racial injustice
The Manhattan Project a research and development project that produced the first nuclear weapons during WWII led by the US with the support of the United Kingdom and Canada
Bay of Pigs Invasion 4-17-61 1400 Cuban exiles launched what became a botched invasion at the Bay of Pigs on the south coast of Cuba
Cuban Missile Crisis a 1962 confrontation between the US and the Soviet Union over the presence of missile sites in Cuba; one of the “hottest” periods of the cold war
The Berlin Airlift end of WWII: US, British, and Soviet military forces divided and occupied Germany; also divided into occupation zones, Berlin was located far inside Soviet-controlled eastern Germany
Watergate Scandal political scandal following a break-in of the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C., and the attempted cover-up of by President Nixon's administration
Roe v. Wade Supreme Court decision that the Constitution protected a woman's right to abortion prior to viability of the fetus
Reaganomics popular term referring to the economic policies of President Reagan calling for widespread tax cuts, decreased social spending, increased military spending, and deregulation of domestic markets
Vietnam southeast Asian country on the South China Sea; an example of Vietnam is the country east of Cambodia
Plessy vs. Ferguson Supreme Court case which upheld the constitutionality of “separate, but equal facilities” based on race; overturned by Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
Korematsu vs. The U.S. landmark Supreme Court case concerning the constitutionality of Executive Order 9066, which ordered Japanese Americans into internment camps during WWII regardless of citizenship
Brown vs. Topeka Board of Education landmark Supreme Court case which declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional
Truman Doctrine first announced to Congress by President Truman on 3-12-47, American foreign policy created to counter Soviet geopolitical hegemony during the Cold War; further developed 7-12-48 when he pledged to contain Soviet threats to Greece and Turkey
Great Depression deepest and longest-lasting economic downturn in the history of the Western industrialized world; began with the stock market crash of Oct 1929 which sent Wall Street into a panic and wiped out millions of investors
New Frontier term used by liberal presidential candidate John F. Kennedy in his acceptance speech in the 1960 election to the Democratic National Convention at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum as the Democratic slogan to inspire America to support him
The New Deal group of government programs and policies established under President Roosevelt in the 1930s; the New Deal was designed to improve conditions for persons suffering in the Great Depression
Gandhi either Indira Gandhi (prime minister of India 1966-77 and 1980-84) or Mohandas Gandhi (Hindu leader and social reformer aka Mahatma Gandhi)
Dr. Martin Luther (King Jr) African-American clergyman and political leader of the 20th century; most prominent member of the civil rights movement
18th Amendment established the prohibition of alcoholic beverages by declaring production, transport, and sale of alcohol illegal (though not the consumption or private possession)
Fidel Castro Cuban politician and revolutionary; Prime Minister 1959 to 1976; President 1976 to 2008
Caesar (Cesar) Chavez an American farm worker, labor leader, and civil rights activist; co-founded the National Farm Workers Association (later the United Farm Workers Union)
The Great Society a set of domestic programs launched by President Johnson to eliminate poverty and racial injustice
The U.S. Roadway Act amended and supplemented the Federal Aid Road to authorize appropriations for continuing the construction of highways; amended the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 to provide additional revenue from taxes on motor fuel, tires, trucks and buses, other
Korean War 1950 between the United Nations, supported by the US, and the communist Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) when North Korea invaded South Korea
The Marshall Plan an American initiative in which the US gave $13 billion in economic support to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of WWII
Zero Tolerance refusal to accept antisocial behavior, typically by strict and uncompromising application of the law
Rosa Parks a black seamstress from Montgomery, Alabama, who, in 1955, refused to give up her seat on a Montgomery city bus to a white person, as she was legally required to do
Selma city in south-central Alabama; during the civil rights movement in 1965, was the center of a registration drive for black voters led by Martin Luther King, Jr.
Civilian Conservation Corps a public work relief program that operated from 1933 to 1942 for unemployed, unmarried men from relief families as part of the New Deal
National Recovery Act a law passed by Congress in 1933 to authorize the President to regulate industry in an attempt to raise prices after severe deflation and stimulate economic recovery
Tennessee Valley Authority a federally owned US corporation created by congressional charter in May 1933 to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development to the Tennessee Valley
Pearl Harbor major US naval base in Hawaii that was attacked without warning by the Japanese air force on December 7, 1941, with great loss of American lives and ships
Truman and the Atomic bomb When Harry Truman learned of the success of the Manhattan Project, he knew he was faced with a decision of unprecedented gravity. The capacity to end the war with Japan was in his hands, but it would involve unleashing the most terrible weapon ever known
Manhattan Project a research and development project that produced the first nuclear weapons during WWII; led by the United States with the support of the United Kingdom and Canada
Hitler German political leader of the 20th century; his early program for Germany is contained in his book Mein Kampf; dreamed of creating a master race of pure Aryans, who would rule for a thousand years as the third German Empire or Third Reich
Cold War a state of political hostility between countries characterized by threats, propaganda, and other measures short of open warfare
Woman and WWII in addition to factory work and other home front jobs, some 350,000 women joined the Armed Services, serving at home and abroad
Beats the Beat Generation was a group of authors whose literature explored and influenced American culture in the post-WWII era; the bulk of their work was published and popularized throughout the 1950s
Woodstock a village in New York where 400,000 people assembled in 1969 for a rock music festival; the crowd size, hippie dress and customs led to use of the term Woodstock to indicate the youth counterculture of the late 1960s
Reagan 40th President (1981–1989)
Guerilla warfare a small group of combatants such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians or irregulars use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military
Sandra Day O’Connor Associate Justice of the US Supreme Court from her appointment in 1981 by Ronald Reagan until her retirement in 2006
Baby Boom the post–WWII (1946–1964) when the number of annual births exceeded 2 per 100 women (1% of the total population); an estimated 78.3 million Americans were born during this period
Economic growth in the U.S. in the 1950s US was the world’s strongest military power; its economy was booming; new cars, suburban houses and other consumer goods were available to more people than ever before
Joseph McCarthy an American politician who served as a U.S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin from 1947 until his death in 1957
Nixon and the People’s Republic of China an important step in formally normalizing relations between the PRC and the US which was one of its foes; marked the first time a US president had visited the PRC and ended 25 years of separation
Haight/Ashbury a district of San Francisco; center for 19602 hippies and the drug culture
Created by: alexandrea79168
Popular U.S. History sets




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