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SS STAAR Review

8th Grade Social Studies STAAR Review New Republic

TermDefinition
U.S. Constitution The document that sets up the U.S. government and the general outline for how the government will run; it's based on principles that limit the power of government and give people certain rights.
New Republic The era in American history between 1781 (the year the Articles of Confederation were written and the final battle of the American Revolution - the Battle of Yorktown - took place) and 1803 - the year defined by the beginning of Westward Expansion with th
Federalist Papers 85 articles and essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay written to try to persuade people (especially in New York, a middle colony) to convince their representatives to pass the Constitution.
Anti-federalist Writings A group of essays and articles written AGAINST the ratification of the U.S. Constitution. The Anti-Federalist papers had a significant impact on the development of the Bill fof Rights.
Federalism The idea and belief that states (in the U.S.) have some powers when you can't find them in the Constitution. This idea is called "shared powers" a lot of the time. The idea is found most obviously in 10th Amendment (in the Bill of Rights) to the U.S. Co
Constitutional Convention Colonial representatives get together to decide what changes need to be made to the Articles of Confederation and in the process decide to make a completely different document - The U.S. Constitution. The decide on the 3 branches of government, the way th
Treaty of Paris of 1783 The treaty between Great Britain and the United States, it recognized the U.S. as an independent nation. Although fighting ended in 1781 and the Articles of Confederation were ratified that same year, the treaty wasn't signed until 1783 because the new g
Shays' Rebellion A rebellion led by Daniel Shays. Massachusetts farmers were being put in prison (debtors' prison) because they were not paying off their taxes. Many farmers had to pay high taxes to the Massachusetts government because they were trying to get out of debt
Daniel Shays Led a rebellion in 1786 because Massachusetts farmers were being put in prison (debtors' prison) because they were not paying off their taxes. Many farmers had to pay high taxes to the Massachusetts government because they were trying to get out of debt
Eli Whitney Inventor of the Cotton Gin and Interchangeable parts
Cotton Gin A machine invented by Eli Whitney that cleaned the seeds off of cotton. The unintentional effect of Whitney's invention is that it increased slavery because the farmers that bought the cotton gin could now clean it faster, but they needed to pick the cot
George Washington's Farewell Address In his final speech as President of the U.S. Washington warned people of two things: 1) Do not form alliances with other countries (or you will have to go to war when they do); and 2) Stay away from political divisions, they will end up dividing the count
Marbury v. Madison The landmark Supreme Court case where Marbury, one of the "midnight judges" sues James Madison, the Secretary of State because he won't swear Marbury in as a judge. The Supreme Court decides that Madison should not have sworn him in and says that from th
Anti-Federalist A person who opposed the creation of a stronger central governments and eventually opposed the creation of the U.S. Constitution in 1787. Anti-Federalists tended to like the previous governing document, the Articles of Confederation, because they gave st
Cabinet A group chosen by the President of the U.S. to serve as his advisors. The usually lead a department such as the Department of Treasury or the State Department.
National Bank Initially set up to take on all states' debts as a result of the American Revolution, the national bank aimed to create a way for the federal government to make monetary transactions with states and foreign countries, make money for the U.S., and use the
Proclamation of Neutrality During his presidency, while Great Britain and France were at war (Great Britain supported the French king during the French Revolution), George Washington proclaimed that the U.S. government would not take sides in their war and chose to remain neutral.
Alien and Sedition Acts A series of laws passed during John Adams' presidency that aimed at limiting people's freedom of speech by not allowing them to criticize his policies. The laws also allowed the President to arrest, detain, or deport anyone who was thought to be dangerou
XYZ Affair A contoversy that took place when 3 French diplomats (X, Y, and Z) asked for bribes in order to enter negotiations with France after there had been strained relations during their French Revolution and an attempt to continue trade was beginning.
1st Amendment Right to freedom of religion, assembly, press, petition, and speech (RAPPS)
2nd Amendment Right to bear arms
3rd Amendment Right to refuse to quarter or house, troops
4th Amendment Right to protection from unreasonable search and seizure by government officials
5th Amendment Right to due process
6th Amendment Right to public and speedy trial
7th Amendment Right to a trial by jury
8th Amendment Right to avoid excessive bail or cruel and unusual punishment
9th Amendment (Individual) rights to those not listed in the U.S. Constitution
10th Amendment (States') rights to create laws not listed or governed by the U.S. Constitution (federalism)
CRFLIPS Acronym used to remember the constitutional principles that form the foundation for development of the U.S. Constitution: Checks & Balances, Republicanism, Federalism, Limited Government, Individual Rights, Popular Sovereignty, Separation of Powers
Alexander Hamilton He was a captain under George Washington during the American Revolution, served as a representative from New York in the Continental Congresses, became the first Secretary of Treasury, helped to develop and promote the Constitution by co-writing the Feder
John Jay A federalist who supported the ratification of the U.S. Constitution and was appointed the first Chief Justice of the United States. He co-wrote some of the Federalist Papers along with Alexander Hamilton and James Madison
George Mason An Anti-federalist who refused to sign the U.S. Constiution and he wrote several essays and articles against the ratification of the U.S. Constitution.
Articles of Confederation The first document that created a national government that gave Congress the ability to declare war, appoint military officers, sign treaties (such as the Treaty of Paris of 1783), make alliances, appoint foreign ambassadors, and manage relations with Nat
Northwest Ordinance A law that provided the procedures necessary to become a state at the time when westward expansion became a priority for the U.S. Among the requirements was a population of 60,000 people.
Three-Fifth Compromise When trying to decide how population would be decided and whether or not slaves would count towards a state's population, it was decided that 5 black men would count for every 3 white men.
Great Compromise When the New Jersey Plan and the Virginia plan called for representation from different states to be based on either the same numbe of representatives (the New Jersey Plan) or on population (the Virginia Plan), it was decided that two different houses wou
Virginia Plan When trying to decide how representation was going to be handled in the Legislative branch of the United States government at the Constitutional Convention, a group of representatives from Virginia recommended that the number of representatives be decided
New Jersey Plan When trying to decide how representation was going to be handled in the Legislative branch of the United States government at the Constitutional Convention, a group of representatives from New Jersey recommended that the number of representatives be equal
Executive Branch The branch of the United States government created at the Constitutional Convention that is led by the President of the United States and his cabinet, or group of advisors to and leaders of the different parts of government that carry out services and the
Legislative Branch The branch of government of the United States created at the Constitutional Convention that is divided into two houses - the House fo Representatives and the Senate. Among other things, the legislative branch writes and approves the initial stages of how
Judicial Branch Judicial Branch The branch of government of the U.S. that hears court cases and determines whether or not something is legal by interpreting the law. The Judicial Branch is led by the 9 justices on the Supreme Court who ultimately determine whether or no
Judiciary Act of 1789 The initial law that set up the federal court system.
Lowell Factory System A labor and production model used in the United States, and particulary in New England in the early 1800s that aimed at improving the production of the textiles through the use of women laborers and technology including the spinning jenny.
Bill of Rights The first 10 Amendments to the U.S. Constitution that aims at limiting the power of the federal government, providing individuals and states certain rights. It was added to the Constitution in an attempt to persuade Anti-federalists to agree with the rati
Created by: jvasqu07