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US History B

Vocabulary Words and Definitions

TermDefinition
Hoovervilles A shantytown built by unemployed and destitute people during the Depression of the early 1930s
Lend-Lease Act Congress authorized the sale, lease, transfer, or exchange of arms and supplies to 'any country whose defense the president deems vital to the defense of the United States.'
Internment Camps Internment means putting a person in prison or other kind of detention, generally in wartime. During World War II, the American government put Japanese-Americans in internment camps, fearing they might be loyal to Japan.
Marshall Plan The Marshall Plan was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave $13 billion in economic support to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War.
Highway Act of 1956 The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956, popularly known as the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act (Public Law 84-627), was enacted on June 29, 1956, when President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the bill into law
Vietnamization Vietnamization was a policy of the Richard Nixon administration to end U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War.
Containment Containment was a United States policy using numerous strategies to prevent the spread of communism abroad.
Domino Theory The domino theory was a theory prominent from the 1950s to the 1980s, that speculated that if one country in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution On August 7, 1964, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, authorizing President Johnson to take any measures he believed were necessary to retaliate and to promote the maintenance of international peace and security in southeast Asia.
McCarthyism McCarthyism is the practice of making accusations of subversion or treason without proper regard for evidence.
Red Scare Red Scare definition. The rounding up and deportation of several hundred immigrants of radical political views by the federal government in 1919 and 1920.
Freedom Rides A group of northern idealists active in the civil rights movement.
Sit-ins a form of protest in which demonstrators occupy a place, refusing to leave until their demands are met.
Bus Boycotts The Montgomery bus boycott, a seminal event in the Civil Rights Movement, was a political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama.
Brown V. Board of Education Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
SNCC The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee was one of the most important organizations of the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. It emerged from a student meeting organized by Ella Baker held at Shaw University in April 1960.
SCLC The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) is an African-American civil rights organization. SCLC, which is closely associated with its first president, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., had a large role in the American Civil Rights Movement.
Nation of Islam The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and political organization whose origins are somewhat mysterious. Wallace D. Fard, later known as Master Wallace Fard Muhammad, established the NOI in Detroit during the 1930s.
Black Panthers a member of a militant political organization set up in the US in 1966 to fight for black rights.
The New Frontier A slogan used by President John F. Kennedy to describe his goals and policies.
The Great Society a domestic program in the administration of President Lyndon B. Johnson that instituted federally sponsored social welfare programs.
The Manhattan Project The Manhattan Project was a research and development project that produced the first nuclear weapons during World War II. It was led by the United States with the support of the United Kingdom and Canada.
Bay of Pigs Invasion Bay of Pigs Invasion, 1961, an unsuccessful invasion of Cuba by Cuban exiles, supported by the U.S. government. On Apr. 17, 1961, an armed force of about 1,500 Cuban exiles landed in the Bahía de Cochinos (Bay of Pigs) on the south coast of Cuba.
Cuban Missile Crisis Cuban missile crisis definition. A confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union in 1962 over the presence of missile sites in Cuba; one of the “hottest” periods of the cold war
The Berlin Airlift The Berlin Airlift, 1948–1949. At the end of the Second World War, U.S., British, and Soviet military forces divided and occupied Germany. Also divided into occupation zones, Berlin was located far inside Soviet-controlled eastern Germany.
Watergate Scandal Watergate was a major political scandal that occurred in the United States in the 1970s.
Roe V. Wade The Supreme Court case that held that the Constitution protected a woman's right to an abortion prior to the viability of the fetus; thus, government regulation of abortions must meet strict scrutiny in judicial review.
Reaganomics the economic policies of the former US president Ronald Reagan, associated especially with the reduction of taxes and the promotion of unrestricted free-market activity.
Vietnam Vietnam is defined as a southeast Asian country on the South China Sea. An example of Vietnam is the country east of Cambodia.
Plessy V. Ferguson The Supreme Court case, since overturned by Brown v. Board of Education (1954), which upheld the constitutionality of “separate, but equal facilities” based on race.
Korematsu V The US. Korematsu v. United States, (1944), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case concerning the constitutionality of Executive Order 9066, which ordered Japanese Americans into internment camps during World War II regardless of citizenship.
Brown V. Topeka Board of Education Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
Truman Doctrine the principle that the US should give support to countries or peoples threatened by Soviet forces or communist insurrection.
The Great Depression the financial and industrial slump of 1929 and subsequent years.
New Frontier A slogan used by President John F. Kennedy to describe his goals and policies.
New Deal A group of government programs and policies established under President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1930sthat was designed to improve conditions for persons suffering in the Great Depression.
Dr. Martin Luther An African-American clergyman and political leader of the twentieth century; the most prominent member of the civil rights movement.
18th Amendment The 18th Amendment of the United States Constitution effectively established the prohibition of alcoholic beverages in the United States by declaring the production, transport, and sale of alcohol illegal.
Fidel Castro Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz known as Fidel Castro, is a Cuban politician and revolutionary who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.
Caesar Chavez Cesar Chavez was an American labor leader and civil rights activist, who, with Dolores Huerta, co-founded the National Farm Workers Association (later the United Farm Workers union, UFW) in 1962.
The Great Society a domestic program in the administration of President Lyndon B. Johnson that instituted federally sponsored social welfare programs.
The US. Roadway Act The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956, popularly known as the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act (Public Law 84-627), was enacted on June 29, 1956, when President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the bill into law.
Korean War Korean War definition. A war, also called the Korean conflict, fought in the early 1950s between the United Nations, supported by the United States, and the communist Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
The Marshall Plan The Marshall Plan was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave $13 billion in economic support to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War.
Zero Tolerance refusal to accept antisocial behavior, typically by strict and uncompromising application of the law.
Rosa Parks A black seamstress from Montgomery, Alabama, who, in 1955, refused to give up her seat on a Montgomery city bus to a white person, as she was legally required to do
Selma City in south-central Alabama. Note: In 1965, during the civil rights movement, Selma was the center of a registration drive for black voters, led by Martin Luther King, Jr. The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Civilian Conservation Corps The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was a public work relief program that operated from 1933 to 1942 in the United States for unemployed, unmarried men from relief families as part of the New Deal.
National Recovery Act The National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) was a law passed by the United States Congress in 1933 to authorize the President to regulate industry in an attempt to raise prices after severe deflation and stimulate economic recovery.
Tennessee Valley Authority This is a federally owned corporation in the United States created by congressional charter in May 1933 to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development to the Tennessee Valley
Pearl Harbor A major United States naval base in Hawaii that was attacked without warning by the Japanese air force on December 7, 1941, with great loss of American lives and ships
Truman and the Atomic Bomb A directive was written and approved by President Truman, ordered the Army Air Force's 509th Composite Group to attack Hiroshima, Kokura, Niigata, or Nagasaki (in that order of preference) as soon after August 3 as weather permitted.
Manhattan Project The Manhattan Project was a research and development project that produced the first nuclear weapons during World War II. It was led by the United States with the support of the United Kingdom and Canada.
Hitler Hitler German Nazi dictator during World War II (1889-1945) Hitlerian of or relating to or suggestive of Adolf Hitler or his Nazi regime in Germany.
Cold War the state of political hostility that existed between the Soviet bloc countries and the US-led Western powers from 1945 to 1990
Women and WWII The country had to keep functioning even as millions of men who performed critical functions in the economy were drafted. Women responded to calls to keep Americans fed, moving, and communicating
Beats The Beat Generation was a group of authors whose literature explored and influenced American culture in the post-World War II era.
Woodstock A village in New York state, where some 400,000 young people assembled in 1969 for a rock music festival.
Reagan Reagan received his party's nod in 1980. In that year's general election, he and running mate George H.W. Bush (1924-) faced off against President Jimmy Carter (1924-) and Vice President Walter Mondale (1928-).
Guerilla Warfare A form of irregular warfare where a small group of combatants use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Sandra Day O' Connor Sandra Day O'Connor (born March 26, 1930) is an American jurist, who was a former Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, serving from her appointment in 1981 by Ronald Reagan until her retirement in 2006.
Baby Boom United States. The term "baby boom" most often refers to the post–World War II baby boom (1946–1964) when the number of annual births exceeded 2 per 100 women. There are an estimated 78.3 million Americans who were born during this period.
Economic Growth in the US. in the 1950's a period of economic prosperity in the mid-20th century which occurred, following the end of World War II in 1945, and lasted until the early 1970s
Joseph McCarthy Joseph Raymond "Joe" McCarthy (November 14, 1908 – May 2, 1957) was an American politician who served as a U.S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin from 1947 until his death in 1957.
Nixon and the People's Republic of China It marked the first time a U.S. president had visited the PRC, which at that time considered the U.S. one of its foes, and the visit ended 25 years of separation between the two sides
Haight/ Ashbury The Haight-Ashbury district is noted for its role as a center of the 1960s hippie movement. The earlier bohemians of the beat movement had congregated around San Francisco's North Beach neighborhood from the late 1950s
Created by: alexy79558