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SS STAAR Review

8th Grade Social Studies STAAR Review Exploration and Colonization and American

TermDefinition
Parliament The representative group in Britain that makes legislative (law-making) decisions, much like the Legislative Branch of the U.S.
Puritans A religious group who felt that the Church of England needed to get rid of all Catholic practices. They believed in strict practices and condemned people who were not active in strict religious practice.
Quakers A relgious group who were oftentimes seen as different because they believed that people had a responsibility to have a direct relationship with God; in many ways, they believed that everyone was a priest that could interact with God directly.
Representative Government A form of government where people elect others to represent their ideas and beliefs; it is also known as republicanism - the belief that government should be based on a lot of peopple being represented by others.
Southern Colonies The colonies located the furthest south. They had a Catholic and Anglican tradition but tended to focus around the very rich and good soil so that they developed large plantations. Initially they farmed rice but eventually, cotton became the most import
Treaty of Paris of 1763 The treaty between Great Britain and France that ended the French and Indian War. Because the French lost, they pretty much lost all territory in North America.
Triangular Trade The nickname given to the trade routes between Europe, Africa, and North America in the Era of Exploration and Colonization. Cotton and other raw materials were sent to Europe form North America, Europe sent textiles to Africa, Africa sent slaves to Nort
William Penn Founder of Pennsylvania and a Quaker, Penn believed in religious freedom, was successful in having good relations with Natives, and helped to plan and develop the city of Philadelphia.
Anne Hutchinson A religious leader in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, Hutchinson was asked to leave the Boston area with many of her supporters because of her strong spritual beliefs that your connection to Christ would ultimately lead to salvation. Leaders that banished
Colonization The act of group taking over an area through cultural, economic, social, geographic and political impact - sometimes through war.
Colony An area of part of a country that was partly in control by a larger country, usually settled there by some of the people from the larger country. They live their with the aim of establishing a life and influencing the area based on the beliefs they bring
English Bill of Rights A law passed by the British parliament that gave the British certain civil rights in 1689. The English Bill of Rights becomes the foundation for the U.S. Bill of Rights amended to the Constitution.
Exploration The idea of looking for new things by moving from one place to another in search of something different than what you're used to. In history, the idea is connected to people migrating from one region to another in hopes of discovering a better life.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut A document that describes the organization of a government set up in Connecticut in the early 1600s. It is considered by many to be the first "constitution" because is very similar to how the U.S. Constitution is set up later, with the general rules that
Fur Trade Became the number one reason for France to colonize North America. Fur was taken back to France and traded for other goods.
Hernan Cortez A conquistador from Spain that came to the North America, landed in Mexico and eventually worked to conquer the Aztecs with the help of disease (like Small Pox) and better weaponry than the weaponry of the Natives.
House of Burgesses The first group of representatives in Virginia chosen to create and use laws on behalf of other colonists. The Virginia House of Burgesses influences the foundation of representative government in the U.S.
Jamestown Established in 1607, this was the first settlement where people landed, stayed, endured a VERY difficult time (where many died), and still developed a colony (a place where people choose to live together under the same rules).
John Locke Philosopher who established the beliefs of life, liberty, and the pursuit of property that later became the foundation for Thomas Jefferson's belief in "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" found in the Declaration of Independence.
John Smith The leader of the Virginia Company who landed in the area eventually known as Jamestown (named after King James), who sponsored his voyage, and eventually helped the people in town to survive by becoming friends with native tribes.
Joint-stock company A company put together by people willing to invest in the company and purchase "stock" or "shares" in that company. In becoming owners, the shareholders would gain or lose money depending on how the company was doing. In the early days, people invested i
Magna Carta Issued by King John of England in 1215, the document stated that everyone, including the king, had to obey the law. This document influences the foundation for the constitutional principle of Limited Government in the U.S. Constitution.
Mayflower Compact A document written by Pilgrims who were seeking religious freedom and had come to American in the ship known as the Mayflower, landed in Plymouth (now Massachusetts), and agreed to work as one, governing together. They signed the document in 1620 to demon
Mercantilism The belief that a country had an oblication to keep control of a country's economic power, invest in it, and work to make more money for that country, therefore, making it more powerful .
Middle Colonies The colonies in between the most northern colonies and the most southern colonies that tended to focus around farming crops that didn't require the best soil or most water (like wheat), and was heavily focused around trading, which is why young men withou
New England Colonies The most northern of the original 13 American colonies, they tended to focus around subsistence farming, had rocky soil, and had a strong Puritan tradition with a lot of things focused around families and small towns.
Parliament The representative group in Britain that makes legislative (law-making) decisions, much like the Legislative Branch of the U.S.
Puritans A religious group who felt that the Church of England needed to get rid of all Catholic practices. They believed in strict practices and condemned people who were not active in strict religious practice.
Quakers A relgious group who were oftentimes seen as different because they believed that people had a responsibility to have a direct relationship with God; in many ways, they believed that everyone was a priest that could interact with God directly.
Representative Government A form of government where people elect others to represent their ideas and beliefs; it is also known as republicanism - the belief that government should be based on a lot of peopple being represented by others.
Southern Colonies The colonies located the furthest south. They had a Catholic and Anglican tradition but tended to focus around the very rich and good soil so that they developed large plantations. Initially they farmed rice but eventually, cotton became the most import
Treaty of Paris of 1763 The treaty between Great Britain and France that ended the French and Indian War. Because the French lost, they pretty much lost all territory in North America.
Triangular Trade The nickname given to the trade routes between Europe, Africa, and North America in the Era of Exploration and Colonization. Cotton and other raw materials were sent to Europe form North America, Europe sent textiles to Africa, Africa sent slaves to Nort
William Penn Founder of Pennsylvania and a Quaker, Penn believed in religious freedom, was successful in having good relations with Natives, and helped to plan and develop the city of Philadelphia.
Battle of Lexington and Concord The first battles of the American Revolution, the towns of Lexington and Concord are so close to one another, and the battles happen so close in chronology, that they're usually "lumped" together.
Battle of Saratoga The "turning point" in the American Revolution. After the Battle of Saratoga, France was convinced that if they supported the American colonists, they would probably win and knew that it would give them the upper hand in Europe. With the support of the Fr
Battle of Yorktown Last battle of the American Revolution - General Cornwallis, a well-known general in the British forces surrenders.
Boston Tea Party An act of civil disobedience where an "underground" secret society known as the "Sons of Liberty" protested passing of the Tea Act, a law that gave tax benefits to the government-run East India Tea Company, by having colonists dress up as Native Americans
Declaration of Independence The U.S. document written by Thomas Jefferson aimed at letting Great Britain know what the colonies were declaring themselves independent, separating themselves from England because the had complaints (grievances) against the British government.
Intolerable Acts Group of laws passed by British parliament that limited the colonists' rights, specifically with regard to their ability to have their court cases heard by other colonists, their ability to trade with other countries, and their being forced to "quarter" s
King George III British king during the American Revolution that, together with British parliament imposed taxes, limited colonists rights and was the target of Thomas Jefferson's grievances in the Declaration of Independence.
Loyalist A person who was loyal to the British government's idea of maintaining control over the colonies and the colonies staying with the British government.
Patriot A person who was loyal to the colonial ideas of independence during the American Revolution.
Preamble The first part of the U.S. Declaration of Independence that says why the document was written.
Proclamation Act of 1763 Law passed by British parliament that prohibited colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains. It helped to promote the feeling of frustration among the colonists that their rights were being limited.
Quartering Act Law passed by British parliament that forced colonists to house and feed British soldiers serving in the American colonies.
Revolution the act of one group rising up against their leadership in order to get different rules established
Samuel Adams A leader against the British laws that helped organize the Sons of Liberty before the American Revolution.
Stamp Act A law passed by British parliament that placed a tax on all paper products being sold, including pamphlets, newsletters, etc. A "stamp" had to be added that demonstrated that they had been approved by the British government.
Tea Act A law passed by British parliament that provided the East India Tea Company (the British government's tea company) a huge tax break, making it very difficult for colonial tea companies to compete with the East India Tea Company.
Created by: jvasqu07