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US History Final

TermDefinition
Hoovervilles a shantytown built by unemployed and destitute people during the Depression of the early 1930s.
Lend-Lease Act The principal means for providing U.S. military aid to foreign nations during World War II.
Internment Camps Internment means putting a person in prison or other kind of detention, generally in wartime. During World War II, the American government put Japanese-Americans in internment camps, fearing they might be loyal to Japan.
Marshall Plan An American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave $13 billion in economic support to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.
Highway Act of 1956 Authorized US$100,000 for the construction of 41,000 miles of the Interstate Highway System over a 10-year period.
Vietnamization A policy of the Richard Nixon administration to end U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War through a program to train South Vietnam's forces and assign to them combat role while steadily reducing the number of U.S. combat troops.
Containment The Cold War policy of the United States and its allies to prevent the spread of communism abroad.
Domino Theory A theory prominent from the 1950s to the 1980s, that speculated that if one country in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Gave broad congressional approval for expansion of the Vietnam War after US ships were attacked.
McCarthyism a campaign against alleged communists in the US government and other institutions carried out under Senator Joseph McCarthy. Many of the accused were blacklisted or lost their jobs, although most did not in fact belong to the Communist Party.
Red Scare A "Red Scare" is the promotion of fear of a potential rise of communism or radical leftism.
Freedom Riders A group of northern idealists active in the civil rights movement. The Freedom Riders, who included both blacks and whites, rode buses into the South in the early 1960s in order to challenge racial segregation.
Sit-ins a form of protest in which demonstrators occupy a place, refusing to leave until their demands are met.
Bus Boycotts The Montgomery bus boycott, a seminal event in the Civil Rights Movement, was a political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama.
Brown v. Topeka Board of Education A landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
SNCC one of the most important organizations of the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s that was made up of students
SCLC An African-American civil rights organization which is closely associated with its first president, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and had a large role in the American Civil Rights Movement.
Nation of Islam an organization composed chiefly of African Americans, advocating the teachings of Islam and originally favoring the separation of black and white racial groups in the United States: members are known as Black Muslims.
Black Panthers practiced militant self-defense of minority communities against the U.S. government, and fought to establish revolutionary socialism through mass organizing and community based programs.
The New Frontier A slogan used by JFK to describe his goals and policies. Kennedy maintained that Americans of the twentieth century had to rise to new challenges, such as achieving equality of opportunity for all.
The Great Society a domestic program in the administration of President Lyndon B. Johnson that instituted federally sponsored social welfare programs.
The Manhattan Project a research and development project that produced the first nuclear weapons during World War II.
Bay of Pigs Invasion An attempt in 1961 by the CIA to overthrow Fidel Castro using Cuban exiles that had fled their country after he came to power.
Cuban Missle Crisis A confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union in 1962 over the presence of missile sites in Cuba; one of the “hottest” periods of the cold war.
The Berlin Airlift A military operation in the late 1940s that brought food and other needed goods into West Berlin by air after the government of East Germany, which at that time surrounded West Berlin, had cut off its supply routes.
Watergate Scandal a major political scandal that occurred in the United States in the 1970s, following a break-in at the DNC headquarters at the Watergate office complex and President Richard Nixon's administration's attempted cover-up of its involvement.
Roe v. Wade The Supreme Court case that held that the Constitution protected a woman's right to an abortion prior to the viability of the fetus; thus, government regulation of abortions must meet strict scrutiny in judicial review.
Reaganomics the economic policies of the former US president Ronald Reagan, associated especially with the reduction of taxes and the promotion of unrestricted free-market activity.
Vietnam A country in Southeast Asia that the US went to war with from 1954-1975
Plessy v. Ferguson The Supreme Court case, since overturned by Brown v. Board of Education (1954), which upheld the constitutionality of “separate, but equal facilities” based on race.
Korematsu vs. The US a landmark United States Supreme Court case concerning the constitutionality of Executive Order 9066, which ordered Japanese Americans into internment camps during World War II regardless of citizenship.
Truman Doctrine the principle that the US should give support to countries or peoples threatened by Soviet forces or communist insurrection.
Great Depression the financial and industrial slump of 1929 and subsequent years.
New Deal A group of government programs and policies established under President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1930s; the New Deal was designed to improve conditions for persons suffering in the Great Depression.
Ghandi Indian nationalist and spiritual leader who developed the practice of nonviolent disobedience that forced Great Britain to grant independence to India
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience based on his Christian beliefs.
18th Amendment effectively established the prohibition of alcoholic beverages in the United States by declaring the production, transport, and sale of alcohol (though not the consumption or private possession) illegal.
Fidel Castro a Cuban politician and revolutionary who governed the Republic of Cuba. Politically a Marxist–Leninist and Cuban nationalist, he also served as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba
Cesar Chavez was an American labor leader and civil rights activist, who co-founded the National Farm Workers Association
Korean War A war fought in the early 1950s between the United Nations, supported by the United States, and the communist Democratic People's Republic of Korea. The war began in 1950, when North Korea invaded South Korea.
Zero Tolerance a policy of very strict, uncompromising enforcement of rules or laws.
Rosa Parks Civil rights activist who refused to surrender her bus seat to a white passenger, spurring the Montgomery boycott and other efforts to end segregation.
Selma A city of south-central Alabama west of Montgomery. In 1965, a drive to register local voters, led by Martin Luther King, Jr., culminated in a protest march from Selma to Montgomery
Civilian Conservation Corps a public work relief program that operated from 1933 to 1942 in the United States for unemployed, unmarried men from relief families as part of the New Deal.
National Recovery Act a law passed by the United States Congress in 1933 to authorize the President to regulate industry in an attempt to raise prices after severe deflation and stimulate economic recovery.
Tennessee Valley Authority a federally owned corporation created to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development to the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly affected by the Great Depression
Pearl Harbor A major United States naval base in Hawaii that was attacked without warning by the Japanese air force on December 7, 1941, with great loss of American lives and ships.
Truman and the Atomic Bomb President Truman’s decision to use the atomic bomb against Japan in 1945 is arguably the most contentious issue in all of American history
Hitler German Nazi dictator during World War II
Cold War a state of political hostility between countries characterized by threats, propaganda, and other measures short of open warfare, in particular. Existed between the Soviet bloc countries and the US-led Western powers from 1945 to 1990.
Woman and WWII American women played important roles during World War II, both at home and in uniform. Not only did they give their sons, husbands, fathers, and brothers to the war effort, they gave their time, energy, and some even gave their lives.
Beats a group of authors whose literature explored and influenced American culture in the post-World War II era.
Woodstock A village in New York state, where some 400,000 young people assembled in 1969 for a rock music festival.
Reagan Ronald Wilson Reagan was an American politician and actor who was 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
Guerilla warfare a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Sandra Day O'Connor a retired associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, serving from her appointment in 1981 by Ronald Reagan until her retirement in 2006. She was the first woman to be appointed to the Court
Baby Boom a temporary marked increase in the birth rate, especially the one following World War II.
Economic growth in the US in the 1950s The post–World War II economic expansion was a period of economic prosperity in the mid-20th century which occurred, following the end of World War II in 1945, and lasted until the early 1970s.
Joseph McCarthy an American politician who served as a U.S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin. Beginning in 1950, McCarthy became the most visible public face of a period in which Cold War tensions fueled fears of widespread Communist subversion
Nixon and the People's Republic of China Nixon's 1972 visit to China was an important step in formally normalizing relations between the United States and China. The visit ended 25 years of separation between the two sides.
Haight/Ashbury a district of San Francisco, in the central part of the city: a center for hippies and the drug culture in the 1960s.
Created by: pasha79418