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|What was shaped as a Narrow Boot?
|The peninsula in the Mediterranean Sea.
|When did it happen?
|What were the 3 continents during the trading?
|Asia, Africa, and Europe
|How was the atmosphere?
|Mild, moist climate, and rich soil
|What were the cons of Swamps at the mouths of rivers?
|Infested with disease-carrying mosquitoes
|What did the mountains caused early people to do?
|Only trade among themselves
|Why did the Greek sailed up to Italy?
|To set up farming colonies
|According to a myth, by who was Rome founded?
|Romulus and Reemus
|What did Rome consisted first?
|Consisted of 7 villages and 7 hills
|Who were the first wealthy kings of United Rome?
|What did the Tarquins taught the people?
|Taught people to build houses out of bricks and laid out city streets
|What did the Forum became when created?
|The seat of Roman Government
|When were Tarquins driven out?
|In 509 B.C.E
|Why were the Tarquins driven out?
|People were upset with the Tarquins "Proud's" cruelty and harshness.
|Who were wealthy Roman nobles?
|By who was Rome declared Republic?
|In a community in which people elect their leaders.
|What were most romans?
|What were plebeians?
|Landowners, merchants, farmers, and etc.
|What did they have?
|Had some rights, but couldn't hold public offices
|What were 2 Rome's Government branches?
|Legislative and executive
|What did the Legislative Branch do?
|Elected people to the executive Branch
|What other things did the Legislative Branch do?
|Senate proposed laws, advised consuls, debated foreign policy, & approved building contracts
|How many consuls did the Executive Branch headed?
|What role did the patricians played in the executive branch?
|Patrician officials elected to 1- year terms
|WWho could veto the actions?
|Either consuls could veto the actions of the other
|Who appointed a dictator?
|What was the role of the dictator?
|A leader whose word was law --> only during times of crisis
|What could the dictator do?
|Could overrule the consuls
|Who resented the the fact that they didn't have any power?
|What did the plebeians refused to do?
|Refused to fight in the army unless their demands were met
|Who was given representatives in government?
|What were the representatives called?
|Who elected the Tribunes?
|Plebeians improved their social standing
|What did rome constantly faced?
|Threats from it's neighbors
|What did rome do in order to protect the republic?
|Conquered it's opponents or forced them to be allies with Rome
|When did Rome ruled the entire Italian Peninsula?
|In 264 B.C.E
|What were soldiers called?
|How were the Legionaries?
|Well- trained; desertion was punishable by death
|How did the romans treated people?
|Treated people well during this time
|Who were linked by their series of roads?
|Rome & it's colonies
|Who were the wealthiest city in the Mediterranean Sea?
|What did the Romans wanted to put in check?
|Wanted to put the expansion of Carthage in check
|Rome Vs. Carthage First Punic War
|Why did the First Punic War start?
|Started when carthage wanted to seize the Strait of Messina & the Romans wanted to stop them
|Rome defeated carthage & took over Sicily
|What was Carthage forced to pay?
|Forced to pay huge indemnity which was payment for damages
|Rome Vs. Carthage Second Punic War
|Who became the general of the Carthaginian army in Spain?
|What did Hannibal do?
|Took over one of Rome's allied cities
|What did he invade?
|He invaded italy with 40,000 soldiers and 40 elephants
|On their way in crossing the alps, what happened to hannibal's army?
|1/2 of hannibal's army were killed by snow, cold, hunger, sickness, & attacks by the mountain people
|What did Hannibal's Army destroy?
|They were in verge of destroying the entire Roman army
|Rome Vs. Carthage Third Punic War
|What did Rome forced 50 years later?
|Forced War on Carthage
|What did the Romans do to Carthage?
|Burned carthage to the ground and sold its people into slavery
|The republic in crisis
|What did the Roman controlled?
|All of the Mediterranean
|What did the Roman corrupt in order to get rich?
|Corrupt Roman officials creating large estates and by stealing land from poor farmers & using a profitable agriculture business
|What did the Roman officials used?
|Used captives and prisoners war as slaves on the estates
|What did they do to the people ?
|Conquered them and most of the people lost their land and couldn't find jobs
|The republic in crisis: Slave Revolts
|By who was the major revolt led?
|By a slave named Spartacus
|What happened during this major revolt?
|Romans finally crushed the uprising; killing about 6,000 revolters
|Who were the consuls during that time?
|The Gracchus brothers
|What was their proposal?
|Distributing land to the poor but they were both murdered
|Army leaders came to rule Rome
|What did the Army leaders do?
|Formed separate armies that fought each other for power
|What did Julius Caesar use to get political power?
|He used this practiced of using the army
|The first emperors
|How was the Roman Republic?
|Too week to maintain control
|Who believed that Roman needed ONE strong ruler?
|What name did the Octavian give himself?
|He gave himself the title "Augustus" which means "majestic one"
|Who became the first emperor?
|Octavian became the absolute ruler
|What did he do?
|What did he import?
|Imported grain so all the Rome could be fed
|What did he build?
|He build new roads & and rebuilt the old ones
|What did he have?
|Had magnificent buildings.
|How many years did he ruled?
|What did Tiberius Caesar do?
|Accused innocent people of treason.
|How was Caligula Caesar killed?
|Mentally disturbed & killed by a palace guard.
|How was Claudius Cesar?
|Very smart, but had trouble focusing on affairs of the state.
|How was Nero Caesar?
|Cruel & insane.
|What was Nero Caesar willing to do?
|Willing to bankrupt Rome to pay for his horse racing & music.
|Who did he killed?
|Paranoid of traitors -> Killed own wife, mother, and other senators.
|How was he killed?
|Sentenced to death for treason, but killed himself first.
|What did Trajan do?
|Increased the empire to greatest size.
|What did Marcus Aurelius do?
|Brought the empire to the height of its economic prosperity.
|What did the Pax Romana do?
|Boosted trade & generated many achievements in arts (pottery, woven cloth, blown glass, jewelry).
|What happen to the families?
|Family became less significant.
|What did the family have?
|Fewer children, likely to divorce & remarry several times, wives gained some legal rights.
|What did the Wealthy class have?
|Owned large farms, ran factories, held public offices.
|Where did they live?
|Lived in luxurious homes with marble & mosaic floors, running water, and baths.
|How was most of Rome?
|Most of rome was still poor.
|Where did they live?
|Bathes in public baths, lived in apartments buildings that could easily collapse or catch fire.
|What did the people rebel?
|Didn't rebel because they got free food & entertainment like chariot races and gladiators fights.
|What was built?
|Built aqueducts= artificial channels for carrying water.
|What did the aqueducts do?
|Brought water to rome from far away.
|What did the wealthy boys & girls received?
|Tutoring at home.
|Where did wealthy boys go to?
|Went to academics.
|What did the wealthy girls do?
|Continued studying at home & often learned as much as the men.
|What did the lowest classes have?
|They usually had at least knowledge of reading, writing, and arithmetic.
|The Empire Problems's
|What did emperor Commodus do in 180 C.E?
|Bankrupt the treasury and killed his own troops.
|What happened to the Next 28 emperors?
|They were installed by the army, only to be killed off.
|What did they rise in between the armies?
|Didn't have time to defend the empire's borders against attack.
|What problems occur in wars?
|Warfare disrupted production & trade, as well as farmland.
|What did the Government do?
|Government minted more coins to cope with economic problems.
|What were the causes?
|Cause inflation = a rise in prices & a decrease in the value of money.
|What were taxes use for?
|There was higher taxes which was the only way to pay for soldiers needed in war.
|Who they taxed?
|Taxing landowners caused them to abandon land -> this meant less crops & food shortage.
|What did Diocletian do?
|Increased the number of men in the army.
|What did he divided?
|Divided empire into 2 units.
|What did he ruled?
|He ruled the east, another ruled the west.
|His economic reforms failed.
|What did Constantine do?
|Tried to stabilize the empire after the civil wars.
|What did he made legal?
|Made it legal for landowners to chain workers so they didn't leave.
|What did he made?
|Made more jobs hereditary.
|What did he move?
|Moved the capital in the east & called in Constantinople.
|What did Theodosius do?
|Made the east and west separate empires.
|What was the East?
|What was the West?
|What tribes entered the empire?
|Germanic tribes entered the empire.
|Why did they entered the empire?
|Looked for warmer climate, Wanted better grazing land, Wanted Rome's wealth.
|From where were they most fleeing?
|Most were fleeing from the huns = fierce nomadic invaders & warriors.
|Who were part of the Warrior groups?
|Warriors, their families and a chief.
|Who was compared to who?
|Poor compared to romans.
|What were the differences and similarities of the Warriors groups?
|Many different Warriors groups -> the only thing that they had in common was Germanic language.
|What did Romans considered this tribes?
|Romans considered these tribes barbarians & thought of their language weird babbling & sounds.
|What did the Visigoths do?
|Captured and sacked rome.
|By who was The Huns led?
|Led by the Attila the hun.
|What did the Huns do?
|Plundered cities in Italy.