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1974-2000

Ford-George W Bush

QuestionAnswer
Yuppie 1980s - Young Urban Professional - occupied with personal fitness / consumer goods / healthy. Sometimes called the "Me Generation"
Gender Roles Women working outside home 20M 1960 - 60M 1990. Segregated less. High education. Lowering birth rates. More abortions. Earlier sex and living together with partners.
AIDS 1981 - Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome - freed sex lowered. Spread from sex and sharing needles. Safer sex was practiced
Three Mile Island 1979 - Nuclear power plant in PA had partial meltdown. Deeped public concerns about nuclear power.
Equal rights amendment (ERA) 1972 - Congress passed this banning discrimination based on sex. Women's movement separated - Betty Friedan / other moderates disliked lesbians / downgraded motherhood and homemaking
William F Buckley Launched National Review mag 1955; founded Young Americans for Freedom 1960; Firing Line TV show 1966. ALL CONSERVATIVE
Phyllis Schlafly Showed conservative movement after 1960s - woman who denounced liberal Reps, attacked New Left / counterculture, opposed abortion/gay rights/ERA
Evangelical groups Conservatives - Assemblies of God, Southern Baptist, Chuck Smith's Calvary Chapel (Orange County) (grew immensely) Liberal - Methodist, Unitarians, Congregationalists (lost members)
Engel v Vitale 1962 - Banned organized prayer in public schools as violation of First Amendment. Evangelicals looked for homeschooling / private Christian schools
The Late Great Planet Earth 1970 - Hal Lindsey - described how everything that had happened internationally was foretold in the Bible - enforced evangelical political mobilization
Inflation in the 1970s Largely caused by high oil prices - 11% to 14% inflation '70-'80. Prices doubled.
Deindustrialization Industrial halt - worsened economy. Steel/cars hit hard (foreign cars / oil).
Trade deficit 1971 - US exported less than they imported, had to flow money abroad. Home economy suffered even more.
2 Black American Groups 12% of college were blacks, 46% held white-collar jobs. 1/3 of blacks still lived in slums - no high school, 60% unemployment - 32% poverty rate as recession happened. Drugs / violence grew in ghettos
Comprehensive Drug Abuse Act 1970 - Tough law dealing with drug overdose - affected all social levels. Bloods and Crips were rival gangs in LA - cities were centers from drug trafficking.
Affirmative Action Compensated for past discrimination by giving percentages and quotas needed to be filled by minorities. Faced Bakke v US (Bakke rejected in medical-school b/c quota in CA) which banned quotas from education and work
Indian Self-Determination Act 1974 1974 - Spreading protests led to this law granting tribes control of fed aid programs / education in reservations. Many tribes won back lands taken from them or won them back. Improved lifestyle and negative stereotypes.
Immigration Reform and Control Act 1986 - Update of Imm Act 1965 - outlawed illegal immigrant hiring. Offered legal status for 5 or more years of residency.
Gerald Ford 1974 - Aug 9 - became president after Nixon's resignation. House minority from Michigan, public angered when pardoned Nixon. More democratic than Nixon, Democratic Congress overrode many vetoes.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) 1973 - Placed oil embargo on US, rises of petroleum-based products price
Whip Inflation Now (WIN) 1974 Oct - Voluntary price restraint to help with inflation, prices kept rising. Rises in interest rates resulted in hard recession (11% unemployment)
Election of 1976 1976 - Ford (R, barely beat Reagan) vs Carter (D, Mondale as VP). Close election - divided (rich - Ford, poor - Carter). Carter won. Vague politically, non-social, helped lower unemployment. Wanted to stay AWAY from "BIG gov"
Alaska Land Act 1980 - 100M acres of public land in Alaska set aside. Companies wanting Alaska's oil protested
Niagara Falls NY crisis Hooker Chemical and Plastics Corporation dumped toxic waste in "Love Canal" district. High cancer and defects rates found. 1980, Carter created Superfund to clean most polluted industrial sites.
Panama issue Carter put emphasis on worldwide human rights, Panama had anti-American riots. Panama Canal treaty helped Panama's issues, Senate actually ratified treaties.
China 1979 - New leader Deng Xiaoping wanted closer ties to US, Carter restored full relations w/ Beijing but remained iffy (human rights)
SALT II 1979 - Limited US and Soviet nuclear arsenal, stalled in Senate. Support fell when Soviets invaded Afghanistan. Anti-Soviet measures (1980 Moscow Olympic boycott, embargo of grain)
Camp David Accords 1978 - Carter hosted Egypt leader Anwar el-Sadat in Maryland. Signed peace treaty w/ Israel in 1979 against Israel v Egypt war. Ignored by many, failed after Sadat's murder.
Iran 1979 - Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi placed pro-US regime. Shiite Muslims hated Shah, Khomeini became leader. After shah taken for cancer treatment, Khomeini took 50 hostages for 444 days.
Stagflation Combination of business stagnation and inflation (OPEC's new oil price boost heightened gas prices to almost $1). Energy conservation became necessary.
Ronald Reagan 1966 gov of CA (helped win by Orange County - conservative center), 1978 passed Proposition 13 (cut property taxes). 1980 president. Tax cuts, military spend, business deregulation helped economy but created deficit. Supported "Traditional values"
Election of 1980 Reagan (w/ George H W Bush) v Carter (w/ Mondale) - Reagan won most Southern and Western states, some blue-collar switched to Republican, blacks stayed Democrat. Sunbelt states grew.
Reaganomics 25% income tax cut (3 years). Cut $40B from domestic spending. Deregulation grew. Sec of Int Watt industrialized environment. Disliked organized labor. High interest rates (helped inflation, brought recession). US goods more expensive, trade deficit $111B
1982 midterm elections 1982 - Democrats regained 26 House seats. 1983 - an economic rebound happened - spending / stock market rose like the 1920s. 1987 - stock market crashed. During time, trade deficit grew to $200B. 1988, economy looked better.
El Salvador 1984 - Military backed by Reagan in suppression against Castro.
Nicaragua 1982 - Sandinista was turning into pro-communist state, guerilla army (contras) organized by CIA raided and sabotaged country. Reagan wanted military halt, but gave money.
Grenada 1983 - Installed pro-Castro radical gov. 2000 US troops invaded and placed pro-US gov
Iraq 1980s - Saddam Hussein invaded Iran. Reagan wanted to slow Islamic fundementalism (literal interp.) shown by Khomeini, backed Iraq in war.
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) 1981 - Shot Israel's ambassador of Great Britain, Israeli troops under defense minister Sharon invaded Lebanon. Lebanese militia assassinated Palestine refugee camps. Reagan tried to reach peace, 239 marines killed in Shiite suicide mission
Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) 1983 - Computerized anti-missile system (space lasers/high tech). Countered the "nuclear freeze" campaign by many states and NY Central Park protest
1984 election 1984 - Reagan / Bush won by landslide - Reagan's economy, military and financial legislation popularized him.
Jesse Jackson 1984 - Democratic hopeful - African American proposing "rainbow coalition" - minorities and other outsiders - 3.5M votes / 5 Southern states. Walter Mondale beat him, Geraldine Ferraro (VP choice) became 1st woman on major party ticket.
Democratic Leadership Council (DLC) 1985 - organized by Bill Clinton (AK gov), Al Gore (TN Senator) and moderates to help Democrats in Republican dominated government
Antonin Scalia 1968 - replaced Warren Burger by Reagan, conservative, believed in "original intent" of Constitution
Iran-contra scandal 1986 - worst Reagan crisis. Exposed for shipping 500 missiles to Iran - said for release of hostages. Lieut Oliver North switched Iran profits to Nicaragua's contras (forbidden), deleted criminal documents, 1989 charged for crime, Reagan presidency hurt
Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty 1987 Dec - Signed by Reagan and Gorbachev. Eliminated 2500 US / Soviet missiles from Europe, led to Reagan's historic visit to Moscow. Most Americans welcomed new relations w/ Soviets
Terrorist attacks by Israelites / Palestinians 1972 Olympics Palestinian killed 2 Israeli athletes, took 9 hostage. 1985 Vienna / Rome / Athens airports / flights bombed / highjacked. Pan Am flight 103 - 259 died (London-NY).
Reagan legacy Economy improved, deficit soared, no social/environmental/long-term economic laws. Hated affirmative action / welfare. Punctual, traditional values. Victory in cold war vs Iran-contra scandal. Died 2004 at 93.
George W H Bush 1988 - CT Senator, Yale, WWII veteran, Reagan's VP 1980. 1988-1992 president. Approval rating soared after Persian Gulf War, fell to 50% after recession
1988 Election 1988 - George W H Bush (R) v Michael Dukakis (D). Bush - peace, better Soviet relations, low inflation, 14M new jobs. Bush won 40 states, Democrats kept control of Congress
Bush events Calmed arsenal and military against Russia, abandoned contra war in Nicaragua. Captured Noriega (Panama's ruler) for being bribed to permit drugs. Closed Philippines naval bases. South Africa apartheid end. Chinese protest attacks postponed bank loans
Nelson Mandela 1986 - Congress placed economic halt towards South Africa (apartheid). Protest/campaigns led by Desmond Tutu. 1991, Bush lifted sanctions when apartheid died. He was elected president 1994 for being black leader
Persian Gulf War 1990 Aug - Iraq invades Kuwait. Bush (w/ UN and Congress consent) gathered 500k US and 160K foreign troops. Jan 15 Saddam had to withdraw troops, Jan 16 air war began, Feb 23 Schwarzkopf moved to Kuwait. 148 US dead, 25-65k Iraqi dead. US ready militarily
Savings-and-loan (S&L) industry 1988-1990 - home loans industry. Interests went up with inflation. Deindustrialization / tax cuts - more money. Failed b/c recession caused investments to go bad. Since gov insures industry deposits, repaid depositors / sell buildings (bailout cost $400B)
Recession 1990 1990 - Congress wanted less spending cuts / more taxing to lower deficit. Gulf War and S&L bail worsened it. Poverty 2.1M to 34M. 7% jobless 1992. Riots in LA caused by beating of blacks by police and unemployment
Americans with Disabilities Act 1990 1990 - Banned discrimination against disabled persons in hiring / education
Exxon Valdez 1989 - Oil tanker in Alaska spilled 10M gallons of oil.
Clean Air Act 1990 1990 - Caused by air pollutants. People found out issues. Pollution rose to above federal standards. After, disposed of radioactive wastes
Clarence Thomas 1990 - replaced Thurgood Marshall in Supreme Court (Bush also appointed David Souter). Truly shifted court conservatively. Because Marshall had conservative ideas, Bush criticized.
Anita Hill 1990 - accused Thomas (new judge) of sexual harassment. Repub effort to deny testimony split women.
Planned Parenthood v Casey 1992 - 5 to 4 decision, agreed w/ Roe v Wade, upheld PA law imposing 24 hour waiting period and other requirements (moved conservatively)
Election of 1992 Bill Clinton (D, AK gov, Albert Gore Jr of TN as running mate, environment, health-care, economy). H. Ross Perot (40% approval at peak, fell due to harsh response to critics). Bush (R, Attacked Clinton). 43-38-19%. Bush too indecisive, Perot too divisive
Congressional races Hispanics, African Americans, Korean, 2 women senators (Barbara Boxer / Dianne Feinstein), African American woman senator Carol Moseley Braun. Called "Year of the Woman"
William Jefferson (Bill) Clinton 1992 - First baby boom president. Came of age during JFK, Vietnam, Beatles. Yale Law School grad (met Hillary). Focused on domestic policy. Unhappy with ultra-liberal Democratic reputation. Wanted to be in "middle ground." Women's movement supporter
Madeleine K Albright 1997 - Secretary of State appointed by Clinton. Highest position ever held by a woman.
Clinton's economy Spending cuts, tax increases (ease deficit). NAFTA, Medicare/Medicaid (14% of budget 1992). Healthcare task force (Hillary, new tobacco prices to start), doctors/insurance industry/tobacco companies opposed plan.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 1993 - Added Mexico to free-trade zone created by Canada and US before.
Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) 1994 - required recipients of this welfare to go to work in 2 years, delayed by Congress. Cost $125B in 1994 (too expensive), linked with dependance
Christian Coalition 1994 - Pat Robertson w/ 900 chapters controlled state Republican parties. Showed religious right's power in politics
Newt Gingrich 1994 Sep - Rep congressman. "Contract with America" signed by 300 Republican congressional candidates. (tax cuts, congress term limits, antiporn, balanced-budget). Nationalized midterm election (usually local) - R controlled both houses (first since 1954)
1994 midterm elections 1994 - Nationalized midterm election (usually local) - R controlled both houses (first since 1954). R won governors. 230 in House wanted Newt as speaker, wanted to enact "Contract with America" - almost like a conservative FDR / LBJ
Welfare Reform Act of 1996 1996 Aug - Ended AFDC - states received block grants to develop own welfare programs (strict limits - 2 years of continuous coverage, 5 years total). 57% less families on welfare, % of unmarried women in work rose to 65% by 2000.
Economic boom 1990s 1990s - new prod, business, information revolution, trade, low inflation, FRB low interest, 4% unemployment, GDP rose 80%, high value stocks (50% families owned one, most pop was Info-tech). Uneven distribution of wealth, buying power flat. Racial gap
Globalization $133B trade deficit, $59B to Japan. Clinton - Japanese bought US goods. Kept trade w/ China. Gave Mexico $40B loan guarantees when peso collapsed. Helped Indonesia economy / corruption w/ aging leader. Japan/Brazil/Argentina recessions threatened boom
Balkans Southeast European countries. Unsettled by fall of Soviets. 1995 US / NATO air strike Bosnian Serbs b/c killing Muslims/Croats for "ethnic cleansing" when Yugoslavia separated
Kosovo 1998 - Serbian attacked Muslims here. 1999, NATO bombed Serbia and capital. Air power was used. Slobodan Milosevic overthrown, new Serbian gov wanted West aid.
Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) 1993 - US and Russia agreed to cut long-range missiles by half. Destruction of weapons was important.
War in Chechnya 1995-96 - Russia invaded Chechnya (Islamic republic) to put down Muslim population. Economy threatened President Boris Yeltsin. Russia joined G-7 (industrial nations), admitted Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic. Vladimir Putin became president.
Oslo Accords 1993 - Israel and Palestinian's six-year peace. Signed in white house 1994.
Yitzhak Rabin Israeli prime minister. Killed by opposer of Oslo Accords. Benjamin Netanyahu replaced him - suicide bombings and attacks agreed to withdraw forces in West Bank, attacks continued. Replaced by Ehud Barak in 1999.
Saddam Hussein 1997 - Banned UN inspections of certain Iraqi sites - Clinton sent troops and ships to Persian Gulf to get support for strike, but drew back after Kofi Annan said he had opened inspections (he really didn't)
Nuclear development worries 1988 - After not signing Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, India and Pakistan tested nuclear bombs. North Korea too, but stopped when UN threatened $9B help.
Terrorism 1993 Feb - bomb beneath WTC exploded killing 6 (5 Islams were arrested).
Osama Bin Laden 1994 - Mogadishu, Somalia (civil war killing 44 Americans) loyal to him. Wealthy Saudi Arabian / Islamic fundamentalist. Blamed for 1995,96,97 bombings in Saudi Arabia / Africa killing Americans.
USS Cole 2000 - Oct 12 - bomb in small boat (Aden, Yemen) killed 17 American sailors
4 large-scale trends post Cold War 1. Economy played larger role internationally 2. Division between industrial world and poverty struck world. Created hatred / terrorism 3. Ethnic division / fundamentalism intensified b/c globalization -Rwanda, Somalia, Israelis and Palestinians, India
4 large-scale trends post Cold War 4. UN defining its role in world. - 15 world trouble spots (environment, nutrition, health, human-rights). (Americans mostly supported international US and UN)
Election of 1996 Bob Dole (R) v Bill Clinton (D) - Bob was disabled, campaigned lacked luster. Fundraising scandals. Clinton - helped poor, attractive proposals to middle class. Politically appealing
Tobacco 1997 - industries paid $368B in settlement - agreed to limit ads. South (industries) v Clinton administration. $40M campaign killed bill. Tobacco industry reached settlement w/ 46 states, Clinton wanted to sue.
Paula Jones Adultery charges stuck w/ Clinton through AK gov days, now Supreme Court let her file lawsuit against president
Monica Lewinsky W.H. intern - Clinton and her denied everything. Payed Jones $850,000 to settle argument. Linda Tripp (Lewinsky friend) tapped phones showing affairs 1995-97. Passed to Keneth Starr (investigator). Lewinsky admitted after jail threats
Kenneth Starr 1998 - Investigator - narrated affair to House Judiciary Committee. Recommended impeachment. Sent to House and Senate (perjury / obstruction of justice).
Impeachment trial 1999 January - presided by William Rehnquist. Clinton's approval ratings soared (economy/politics). Feb 12, Senate rejected impeachment. Jan 2001, left office, CLinton admitted, paid $25k fine, lost law license fo 5 years.
Election of 2000 Al Gore (liberals/academics/minorities. w/Joseph Lieberman, first Jewish) v George W Bush (religious conservatives, corporates) Dick Cheney) v Ralph Nader (Green Party). Al Gore stronger, had image problems, arrogant
Election of 2000 Bush wanted dignity in White House. Public agreed more with Al Gore, but preferred Bush as person. Gore won pop vote by more than 500k. Florida's vote determined winner. Issues w/ votes, recount had to be short.
Election of 2000 Nov 21, Florida Sup Court ruled for hand recount. Katherine Harris (Bush's Florida campaigner) awarded bush the state. Dec 8, Sup Court demanded recount. Dec 12 halted recount, Gore left next day, Bush won (Sup Court voted for him).
Hillary Rodham Clinton Won election as NY senator. First president wife to have independent political career. 13 women in Senate. Bill issued 167 pardons
Economic boom (cont) NY described as champagne city - mass consumption. "Winner take all" mentality. American enjoyment of life. Many scandals/crimes looked at as media diversion. Class differences shown too.
Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community 2000 - Robert Putnam found less civic engagement / political activism. Evidence - 77% college students expected to be millionaires.
Violence 1999 - Columbine High School - 12 students killed by 2 students. Called for stricter gun-control laws (NRA fought these). Abortion / gay(Matthew Shepard) related murder happened.
Oklahoma City Bombing 1995 April 19 - 5k pounds explosives in rental truck destroyed Murrah Federal Building. 168 dead. Timothy McVeigh received war sentence.
Culture Wars 1995 - Smithsonian cancelled Japan bomb exhibit. Religious conservatives wanted school players. Textbooks being too multicultural. Gay mobilization. Protestants boycotted Disney for Gay Pride days. Churches denounced society/gov.
Created by: uriel_magana