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US History Sem2

U.S. History Semester 2 Final Exam Reveiw

TermDefinition
Hoovervilles a shantytown built by unemployed and destitute people during the Depression of the early 1930s.
Lend-Lease Act the materiel and services supplied by the U.S. to its allies during World War II under an act of Congress (Lend-Lease Act) passed in 1941: such aid was to be repaid in kind after the war. also the two-way transfer of ideas, styles, etc.
Internment Camps Internment means putting a person in prison or other kind of detention, generally in wartime. During World War II, the American government put Japanese-Americans in internment camps, fearing they might be loyal to Japan.
Marshall Plan A program by which the United States gave large amounts of economic aid to European countries to help them rebuild after the devastation of World War II. It was proposed by the United States secretary of state, General George C. Marshall.
Highway Act of 1956 The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956, popularly known as the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act (Public Law 84-627), was enacted on June 29, 1956, when President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the bill into law.
Vietnamization (in the Vietnam War) the US policy of withdrawing its troops and transferring the responsibility and direction of the war effort to the government of South Vietnam.
Containment the action or policy of preventing the expansion of a hostile country or influence
Domino Theory the theory that a political event in one country will cause similar events in neighboring countries, like a falling domino causing an entire row of upended dominoes to fall
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution or the Southeast Asia Resolution, Pub.L. 88–408, 78 Stat. 384, enacted August 10, 1964, was a joint resolution that the United States Congress passed on August 7, 1964, in response to the Gulf of Tonkin incident.
McCarthyism a campaign against alleged communists in the US government & other institutions carried out under Senator McCarthy in the period 1950–54. Many of the accused were blacklisted or lost their jobs, though most did not in fact belong to the Communist Party
Red Scare The rounding up and deportation of several hundred immigrants of radical political views by the federal government in 1919 and 1920. This “scare” was caused by fears of subversion by communists in the United States after the Russian Revolution.
Freedom rides A group of northern idealists active in the civil rights movement. The Freedom Riders, who included both blacks and whites, rode buses into the South in the early 1960s in order to challenge racial segregation.
Sit-ins a form of protest in which demonstrators occupy a place, refusing to leave until their demands are met
Bus Boycotts The Montgomery bus boycott, a seminal event in the Civil Rights Movement, was a political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama.
Brown v. Board of Education, Topeka Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
SNCC The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) was one of the most important organizations of the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. It emerged from a student meeting organized by Ella Baker held at Shaw University in April 1960.
SCLC The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) is an African-American civil rights organization. SCLC, which is closely associated with its first president, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., had a large role in the American Civil Rights Movement.
Nation of Islam an organization composed chiefly of African Americans, advocating the teachings of Islam and originally favoring the separation of black and white racial groups in the United States: members are known as Black Muslims.
Black Panthers a member of a militant political organization set up in the US in 1966 to fight for black rights
The New Frontier A slogan used by President John F. Kennedy to describe his goals and policies. He maintained that, like the Americans of the frontier in the 19th century, and 20th century had to rise to new challenges, such as achieving equality of opportunity for all
The Great Society a domestic program in the administration of President Lyndon B. Johnson that instituted federally sponsored social welfare programs
The Manhattan Project The Manhattan Project was a research and development project that produced the first nuclear weapons during World War II. It was led by the United States with the support of the United Kingdom and Canada
Bay of Pigs Invasion Bay of Pigs Invasion, 1961, an unsuccessful invasion of Cuba by Cuban exiles, supported by the U.S. government. On Apr. 17, 1961, an armed force of about 1,500 Cuban exiles landed in the Bahía de Cochinos (Bay of Pigs) on the south coast of Cuba
Cuban Missile Crisis A confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union in 1962 over the presence of missile sites in Cuba; one of the “hottest” periods of the cold war.
The Berlin Airlift A military operation in the late 1940s that brought food and other needed goods into West Berlin by air after the government of East Germany, which at that time surrounded West Berlin ( see Berlin wall ), had cut off its supply routes.
Watergate Scandal atergate was a major political scandal that occurred in the United States in the 1970s, following a break-in at the Democratic National Committee (DNC)
Roe v. Wade The Supreme Court case that held that the Constitution protected a woman's right to an abortion prior to the viability of the fetus; thus, government regulation of abortions must meet strict scrutiny in judicial review.
Reaganomics the economic policies of the former US president Ronald Reagan, associated especially with the reduction of taxes and the promotion of unrestricted free-market activity
Vietnam is defined as a southeast Asian country on the South China Sea. An example is the country east of Cambodia.
Plessy vs. Ferguson The Supreme Court case, since overturned by Brown v. Board of Education (1954), which upheld the constitutionality of “separate, but equal facilities” based on race
Korematsu vs. The U.S. Korematsu v. US, (1944), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case concerning the constitutionality of Executive Order 9066, which ordered Japanese Americans into internment camps during World War II regardless of citizenship.
Brown vs. Topeka Board of Education Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, (1954), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
Truman Doctrine the principle that the US should give support to countries or peoples threatened by Soviet forces or communist insurrection. 1st expressed in 1947 by US President Truman in a speech to Congress seeking aid for Greece & Turkey.
Great Depression a long and severe recession in an economy or market
New Frontier A slogan used by President John F. Kennedy to describe his goals & policies. He maintained that like the Americans of the frontier in the 19th century & of the 20th century had to rise to new challenges, such as achieving equality of opportunity for all
The New Deal A group of government programs and policies established under President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1930s; the New Deal was designed to improve conditions for persons suffering in the Great Depression.
Gandi extravagantly bright or showy, typically so as to be tasteless
Dr. Martin Luther An African-American clergyman and political leader of the twentieth century; the most prominent member of the civil rights movement.
18th Amendment The Eighteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution effectively established the prohibition of alcoholic beverages in the US by declaring the production, transport & sale of alcohol (though not the consumption or private possession) illegal
Fidel Castro Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz born August 13, 1926, known as Fidel Castro, is a Cuban politician and revolutionary who governed the Republic of Cuba as its Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as its President from 1976 to 2008.
Ceasar Chavez Cesar Chavez (Born March 31, 1927 – April 23, 1993) was an American farm worker, labor leader and civil rights activist, who, with Dolores Huerta, co-founded the National Farm Workers Association (later the United Farm Workers union, UFW).
The Great Society a domestic program in the administration of President Lyndon B. Johnson that instituted federally sponsored social welfare programs
The U.S. Roadway Act The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956, popularly known as the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act (Public Law 84-627), was enacted on June 29, 1956, when President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the bill into law.
Korean War A war, also called the Korean conflict, fought in the early 1950s between the United Nations, supported by the U.S. and the communist Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea). The war began in 1950, when North Korea invaded South Korea.
The Marshall Plan A program by which the United States gave large amounts of economic aid to European countries to help them rebuild after the devastation of World War II. It was proposed by the United States secretary of state, General George C. Marshall.
Zero Tolerance A zero-tolerance policy in schools is a strict enforcement of regulations and bans against undesirable behaviors or possession of items
Rosa Parks A black seamstress from Montgomery, Alabama, who, in 1955, refused to give up her seat on a Montgomery city bus to a white person, as she was legally required to do.
Selma City in south-central Alabama. Note: In 1965, during the civil rights movement, Selma was the center of a registration drive for black voters, led by Martin Luther King, Jr. The American Heritage, New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition.
Civilian Conservation Corps was a public work relief program that operated from 1933 to 1942 in the United States for unemployed, unmarried men from relief families as part of the New Deal.
National Recovery Act The National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) was a law passed by the United States Congress in 1933 to authorize the President to regulate industry in an attempt to raise prices after severe deflation and stimulate economic recovery.
Tennessee Valley Authority The Tennessee Valley Authority is a federally owned corporation in the US created by congressional charter in May 1933 to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development to Tennessee
Pearl Harbor A major United States naval base in Hawaii that was attacked without warning by the Japanese air force on December 7, 1941, with great loss of American lives and ships
Truman and the Atomic bomb powerful weapon created from the splitting of atoms. It was used by President Harry S. Truman in the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasakito end World War 2.
Manhattan Project The Manhattan Project was a research and development project that produced the first nuclear weapons during World War II. It was led by the United States with the support of the United Kingdom and Canada
Hitler A German political leader of the 20th century, born in Austria. Hitler's early program for Germany is contained in his book Mein Kampf. He dreamed of creating a master race of pure Aryans, who would rule for a thousand years as the third German Empire
Cold War a state of political hostility between countries characterized by threats, propaganda, and other measures short of open warfare, in particular
Woman and WWII Women were encouraged to enter professions during WWII
Beats The Beat Generation was a group of authors whose literature explored and influenced American culture in the post-World War II era. The bulk of their work was published and popularized throughout the 1950s
Woodstock A village in New York state, where some 400k young people assembled in 1969 for a rock music festival. The size of the crowd & the prevalence of hippie dress and customs led to use of the term Woodstock nation to indicate the youth counterculture
Reagan Ronald. 1911–2004, US film actor and Republican statesman: Governor of California, 40th president of the US (1981–89) Word Origin and History for Reagan Expand. surname, from Irish riagan, literally "little king."
Guerilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, less-mobile traditional military etc.
Sandra Day O’Connor is an American jurist, who was a former Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, serving from her appointment in 1981 by Ronald Reagan until her retirement in 2006.
Baby Boom a temporary marked increase in the birth rate, especially the one following World War II.
Economic growth in the U.S. in the 1950s an increase in the amount of goods and services produced per head of the population over a period of time.
Joseph McCarthy was an American politician who served as a U.S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin from 1947 until his death in 1957
Nixon and the People’s Republic of China The Soviets were very concerned that two major enemies seemed to have resolved their differences. America's European allies and Canada were pleased by the initiative, especially since many of them had already recognized the PRC.
Haight/Ashbury is a district of San Francisco, California, named for the intersection of Haight and Ashbury streets. It is also called The Haight and The Upper Haight. The neighborhood is known for its history of, and being the origin of hippie counterculture
Created by: Alissajaaz