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SOL World History II

Review for SOL WH II

TermDefinition
Renaissance "rebirth" of Classical knowledge from Greece and Rome
Erasmus important humanist scholar who wrote "In Praise of Folly" criticizing the Catholic Church
Shakespeare English author who wrote plays, sonnets, and essays during the Renaissance
Italian city-states birthplace of the Renaissance
North direction in which the Renaissance spread first
Leonardo Da Vinci Italian Renaissance artist who painted the Mona Lisa and the Last Supper
Michelangelo Italian Renaissance artist who painted the Sistine Chapel
Judaism world's first major monotheistic religion
Christianity world's largest monotheistic religion; believe Jesus is the messiah
Islam world's fastest growing monotheistic religion; Muhammad is its prophet
Torah written records and beliefs of the Jews
Ten Commandments code of conduct for the Jews given from God to Moses
New Testament for Christians it is the written record of the life and teachings of Jesus
Qu'ran/Koran for Muslims it is the written teachings of Allah as revealed to the prophet Muhammad
Five Pillars rules or code of conduct for Muslims/of Islam
Mecca and Medina holy cities of Islam/for Muslims
Hinduism religion that has many forms of one god (monism) such as Vishnu, Shiva, and Brahma
reincarnation rebirth based on karma; belief of both Hindus and Buddhists
karma knowledge that all thoughts and actions result in future consequences; belief of Hinduism and Buddhism related to reincarnation
Buddhism "religion" with no definitive "god"
Siddhartha Gautama founder of Buddhism; the "Buddha" or "Enlightened One"
The Four Noble Truths basic set of beliefs of Buddhists
The Eightfold Path guide for Buddhists to achieve Nirvana/Enlightenment
Asoka emperor who helped to spread Buddhism across India and Southeast Asia
Silk Road trade route from China to Europe
Silk Road products and ideas from China silk, porcelain, paper, and compass
Tarns-Saharan Trade Route North African trade route of the Songhai
goods traded by the Songhai gold and salt
goods and ideas from the Ottoman Empire/Middle East ceramic, coffee, Indian-Arabic numerals, medicine, astronomy, & mathematics
goods from the Indian Ocean Trade Route textiles, spices, & Indian-Arabic numerals
Protestant Reformation period where the power and religious authority of the Catholic Church was challenged
Martin Luther wrote the "95 Theses" launching the Protestant Reformation
printing press spread the knowledge of the Renaissance and ideas of the Protestant Reformation
Johannes Gutenburg created the European printing press
Jan Huss and John Wycliffe pre-Luther Protestant reformers
usury the Catholic Church's idea that charging interest was a sin;challenged by businessmen of the Reformation
indlugences Catholic Church's practice of selling "tickets" to heaven; a sign of Church corruption; challenged by Protestant reformers
Martin Luther founded first Protestant religion-Lutheranism
Martin Luther preached that the Bible was the only true source of God's word and salvation comes from faith alone
predestination belief that God has chosen who has been saved and damned since the creation of the world promoted by John Calvin
John Calvin expanded the Protestant movement, especially to Geneva, Switzerland
King Henry VIII of England dismissed the authority of the Catholic Church in Rome by creating the Church of England-the Anglican Church
divorce reason Henry VIII broke from Rome to create the Church of England/Anglican Church
King Henry the VIII of England appropriated the land and wealth of the Roman Catholic Church in England enriching the crown
Queen Elizabeth I of England perpetuated the Church of England/Anglican Church against the Popes wishes
Spanish Armada Spanish fleet defeated by England's navy in 1588/England most powerful navy in world
Queen Elizabeth I of England English monarch who expanded English colonies in Americas
Peasants Revolt revolt in Germany during the Protestant Reformation
effect of Reformation on Germany/Holy Roman Empire princes converted to Protestant ism so Catholic Church loses power
Thirty Years War war between Catholics and Protestants in the Holy Roman Empire
Hapsburgs ruling family of the Holy Roman Empire that supported Catholic Church during Reformation
Cardinal Richileiu politicized the Thirty Years War which had been religious war
Counter/Catholic Reformation Catholic Church's effort to reassert power of Catholic Church/combat Reformation
Council of Trent reaffirmed Catholic Church's teachings during Counter/Catholic Reformation
Jesuits order of monks founded to spread Catholic teachimgs during Catholic Reformation
Ignatius of Loyola founded the Jesuits
Edict of Nantes provided for religious toleration of Protestant French Huguenots temporarily during Reformation
ideas resulting from Protestant Reformation secularism, religious tolerance, and individualism
divine right belief king's/monarch's authority is granted by God-justification for absolutism
Prince Henry the Navigator sponsored school of navigation leading to Age of Exploration
causes of the Age of Exploration demand for spices, gold, natural resources and desire to spread Christianity
Vasco De Gama Portuguese explorer who was first to circumnavigate Africa to reach Asia
Christopher Columbus Spanish explorer who "discovered" America
Hernando Cortez Spanish conquistador who conquered the Aztec Empire
Francisco Pizarro Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incan Empire
Ferdinand Magellan Spanish explorer who was "first" to circumnavigate the world
Sir Francis Drake First Englishman to circumnavigate the world
Jacques Cartier Frenchman who explored the St. Lawrence River inland
Africa area where European established trading posts along the coast to trade for slaves and gold
Asia area colonized by small groups of merchants like East India Company
Americas areas where Europeans set up colonies to recreate European society
sistema de castas rigid social system set up by European settlers in Latin American colonies
Columbian Exchange the exchange of products and resources between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres
basis of colonial economies in Americas plantations and mining of precious metals
mercantilism economic trade policy used to enrich Europe at the expense of the colonies
Middle Passage the Atlantic Trade route used to forcibly transport African slaves to the Americas
Triangular Trade trade route connecting Europe, Africa, and the Americas
exported from colonies to mother countries raw materials like precious metals and cash crops (ex: tobacco & sugar)
sold by mother country to colonies and Africa finished/manufactured goods
Commercial Revolution period during which mercantilism developed along with banking and insurance industries
religion of Mughal India and Ottoman rulers Islam
city the Ottoman's renamed Istanbul Constantinople
area conquered by Mughals Northern India
area conquered by Ottomans Anatolia Peninsula (Turkey), Balkans, Southwest Asia, & Northern Africa
Taj Mahal architectural achievement of the Mughal rulers of India
enclaves areas, particularly in China, reserved for European trade activity
isolationism foreign policy of Japan until US forced them to open, also US policy until Cold War
Shogun historically, the true ruler of Japan as the emperor was weak
Palace of Versailles built by King Louis XIV of France as a symbol of his absolute power
Peter the Great absolute ruler of Russia known for its Westernization
constitutional monarch type of monarchy in England due to Glorious Revolution
King Charles I English monarch executed due to English Civil War
Oliver Cromwell leader of the forces of the "Roundheads" of who took control of England to establish the "Commonwealth"
King Charles II king who was restored the throne of England at Parliament's request
William and Mary signed the English Bill of Rights becoming first constitutional monarchs of England
Glorious Revolution bloodless revolution in England resulting in William and Mary becoming constitutional monarchs
common law English law not based on social ranking or status, but by on court's rulings
Scientific Revoltion period when people began to look to reason and systematic observation for knowledge
Enlightenment period when people began to use reason to understand law, politics, and human society
Nicolas Copernicus proposed heliocentric theory during Scientific Revolution
Galileo Galilei confirmed heliocentric theory with a telescope during Scientific Revolution
Isaac Newton proposed the theory of gravity during Scientific Revolution
William Harvey discovered blood flows in a closed circulatory system during Scientific Revolution
Johannes Kepler discovered the laws of planetary movement like elliptical orbits during Scientific Revolution
Thomas Hobbes Enlightenment thinker who wrote the Leviathan claiming rulers should have absolute power
John Locke Enlightenment thinker who wrote Two Treatises on Government proposing inalienable rights and the right of the people to revolt
Montesquieu Enlightenment thinker who wrote In the Spirit of Laws advocating for the separation of powers
John-Jacques Rousseau Enlightenment thinker who wrote the Social Contract and supported direct democracy
Voltaire Enlightenment thinker who advocated fore the separation of church and state and religious tolerance
Declaration of Independence written by Thomas Jefferson, included Locke's idea of inalienable rights-inspired by Enlightenement
Thomas Jefferson inspired by Enlightenment, wrote Declaration of Independence
Storming of the Bastille event that sparked the French Revolution
Reign of Terror period of French Revolution when Robespierre and radical Jacobins held mass executions by guilletine
King Louis XVI French monarch executed during French Revolution
Napoleon ends French Revolution by staging coup d'etat and making himself dictator
Johann Sebastian Bach Baroque composer during Enlightenment
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Classical composer during the Enlightenmet
Eugene De La Croix French Romantic painter during Enlightenment
Romanticism style of art that focused on natural scenes and people during Enlightenment
Miguel Cervantes introduced new literary style, the novel, by writing Don Quixote during the Enlightenment
Second Agricultural Revolution period during Scientific Revolution/Enlightenment when technology was added to farming
peninsulares Spanish born in Spain-served as viceroys & colonial officers in Latin American colonies
creoles/criollos American born children and descendants of peninsulares who led successful revolution of independence in Latin America
Amerinidians native population of Latin America first enslaved by Europeans then granted legal protections
mestizos the people of mixed descent (part Spanish & part Amerindian) in Latin American colonies
Toussaint L'Ouverture led Haitian slaves to revolt for independence and abolition of slavery
Father Miguel Hidlago began the Mexican Revolution for independence with the Grito de Dolores
Simon Bolivar known as the 'liberator', led revolutions of independence in Northern South America (Ecuador, Colombia, & Venezuela)
Monroe Doctrine warned Europe that US would not tolerate attempts to dominate Latin America/recognized Latin American independence
Napoleon created French Empire but failed to unify Europe under French domination
Napoleonic Code legal code created by Napoleon to create uniform set of laws & spread Enlightenment
Congress of Vienna crafted Post-Napoleonic Europe by: restoring conservative monarchs, redrawing European borders; balancing power
political ideologies resulting from Congress of Vienna conservatives (anti-Enlightenment) and liberals (pro-Enlightenment)
Revolutions of 1848 political uprising in Europe resulting from actions of Congress of Vienna; liberals lost-conservatives won
nationalism idea different ethnicities deserved their own nation or extreme pride in one's nation; cause for German & Italian unification and WWI
Otto Von Bismarck political leader in Prussia and then Germany who led German unification
realpolitik Otto Von Bismarck's theory anything that needs to be done to maintain power is justifiable
Franco-Prussian War final war leading to German unification
Count Cavour politician who unified northern Italy
Giuseppe Garibaldi joined southern Italy to northern Italy through guerilla warfare by his "Red Shirts" during Italian unification
the Papal States area controlled by Roman catholic Pope which was last to join unified Italy
Emmanuel I the first king of unified Italy
Wilhelm I the first king of unified Germany
Industrial Revolution era during which cottage industry work was replaced by factory work due to mechanization
textile industry first industry of the Industrial Revolution
James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny-one machine could do the work of 16 people
Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin which resulted in higher demand for slave labor and land
Louis Pasteur discovered bacteria
home of the Industrial Revolution England
James Watt improved steam engine leading to Industria Revolution
Henry Bessemer developed the Bessemer Process to create steel during the Industrial revolution
Edward Jenner developed a smallpox vaccine during the Industrial Revolution
entered the workforce during the Industrial Revolution women and children
womens' suffrage movement movement for women to gain the vote which began during Industrial Revolution
labor unions protested for better working conditions and wages during Industrial Revolution
strikes method of protest commonly used by labor unions
capitalism economic theory which believes the government should stay out of the economy
socialism economic theory that believes the government should control the economy to protect workers
Adam Smith wrote the Wealth of Nations explaining capitalism
Karl Marx wrote the Communist Manifesto explaining socialism and communism
laissez-faire economics meaning "hands-off," it is another name for capitalism
invisible hand the law of supply and demand that governs capitalism
colonies form of imperialism where a "mother country" (the colonizer) takes complete social, economic, and political control of an area
sphere of influence type of imperialism where an independent country is carved up in places where foreign countries dominate business/the economy
protectorate type of imperialism where a country trades "protection" for economic and political influence
Suez Canal British and French controlled passage through Egypt which shortened route to Asia
Boer Wars wars between Dutch and British over colonization of Southern Africa
Boxer Rebellion Rebellion in China against Western European influence during Age of Imperialism
Indian National Party/Congress Indian political movement for independence-led boycotts of British goods
Hindu nationalism Indian response to European Christian missionary efforts
Commodore Perry US naval leader who forced Japan to open its doors to trade
militarism build up of a nations armed forces and armaments in anticipation of war or for imperialism-cause of WWI
alliances mutual defense pacts-cause of WWI as it dragged nations into war
imperialism the effort to create an empire through colonization especially-cause of WWI as led to European competition
Archduke Franz Ferdinand heir to Austro-Hungarian throne, his assassination by Serbian nationalist led to outbreak of WWI
Kaiser Wilhelm II leader of Germany during WWI
unrestricted submarine warfare German use of submarines to attack civilian ships during WWI-brought US in to war
Lusitania luxury passenger ship sunk by German unrestricted submarine warfare during WWI
Zimmerman Note German letter soliciting alliance with Mexico against US-interception led US to join war
Triple Alliance/Central Powers enemy alliance of US and Britain during WWI-included Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy (at first), and the Ottoman Empire
Triple Entente alliance friendly to US in WWI-included Russia, Britain, & France
Allied Powers victorious alliance US joined in both WWI & WWII-included Britain, France, & Russia/USSR both times
Russian Revolution of 1917 Bolshevik Revolution which led to execution of Czar Nicholas and establishment of communism
Czar Nicohals II incompetent ruler of Russia during WWI who failed to industrialize, modernize, or create taxation system
Russo-Japanese War war lost by Russia to Japan in 1905 which started a revolution that failed, but was completed by the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution
condition of Russian peasants poor and landles
Vladimir Lenin leader of the Bolshevik Party & Bolshevik Revolution-became the leader of Russia/USSR
Russian Civil War response to the victory of the Bolshevik Revolution-Communist Reds vs. anti-Communist Whites (Reds won)
reason Russia exited WWI Russian Revolution and Lenin taking power
Woodrow Wilson US President during WWI and creator of the League of Nations through his 14 Points-his plan for peace
reparations vast sums of money ordered to be paid by Germany for WWI damages
Treaty of Versailles punitive peace treaty Germany's Wiemar Republic was forced to sign after WWI-divided into Articles
war guilt clause paper Germany had to sign accepting all blame for staring WWI
empires dismantled after WWI German Empire, Ottoman Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, & Russian Empire
New Economic Poicy Lenin's economic policy for Russia to reintroduce capitalism to take a gradual approach to instituting communism
Joseph Stalin Lenin's successor and leader of USSR during WWI as well as start of Cold War
5 Year Plans Stalin's economic plans for state controlled economy with collectivization of agriculture and industrialization-full scale communism
Abyssinia/Ethiopia country invaded by Mussolini's Italy before WWII
Manchuria region of China invaded by Japan before WWII
appeasement failed European policy of giving into Hitler's demands to avoid conflict
FLAW failures of League of Nations: formed without US, lacked military, aggression not stopped, was unable to maintain peace
mandate system system used to after WWI for European countries to control areas not deemed ready for independence (Africa & Middle East)
tariffs taxes on imported goods that ruined world trade leading into the Depression
Roaring Twenties period of prosperity US enjoyed briefly before the Depression
Black Tueday Oct. 29, 1929 day of stock market crash-trigger of the Depression
lines of credit used by people who wanted to invest in stock but didn't have the money-essentially bad loans leading to Depression
bank runs term for when people panicked and ran to banks to take out their money before they collapsed during the Depression
Dust Bowl terrible drought that destroyed American farming during the Depression
inflation when prices rise relative to the value of money-a cause of the Great Depression
single party state/dictatorship nation ruled by one political party (ex: Nazi Germany, Communist USSR)
Wiemar Republic German government at end of WWI forced to sign Treaty of Versialles
Nazi Party German party of National Socialism; party of Hitler
Nuremburg Laws Hitler's first set of Anti-Semetic legislation-stripped Jews of German citizenship and banned intermarriage
Final Solution end of Holocaust-period when Hitler tried to exterminate all Jews
Holocaust genocide against the Jews and others like gypsies during WWII under Hitler
Great Purge period when Stalin used NKVD to execute or imprison anyone suspected of disloyalty or dissatisfaction with his rule
Fascist political party of Mussolini; party of Italy's single-party state in WWII
Axis Powers alliance between Italy, Germany, & Japan during WWII
Hirohito emperor of Japan during WWII
Hideki Tojo military dictator of Japan during WWII; ordered invasion of Manchuria & bombing of Pearl Harbor
Benito Mussolini leader of Italy during WWII
self-determination belief advocated for by Woodrow Wilson that a people should have self-governance
Sudetenland piece of Czechoslovakia given to Hitler at Munich Conference due to appeasement
Anschluss of Austria annexation of Austria by Germany under Hitler-violation of Treaty of Verailles
Poland invasion of this country by Hitler in 1939 launched WWII
Battle of Britain 1940 battle "air war" fought between Britain and Nazi Germany
Non-Aggression Pact agreement between Hitler and Stalin to stay out of each other's way leading into WWII
Pearl Harbor US naval base attacked by Japan drawing US into WWII
D-Day US "storming of the beaches of Normandy" leading to liberation of France & Western Europe from Nazi control
Hiroshima and Nagasaki Japanese cities US dropped atomic bombs on in 1945 ending WWII
Marshall Plan US plan to rebuild European economies with money and aid after WWII
satellite nations nickname for nations in Soviet sphere of influence during Cold War
NATO alliance between US and nations in our sphere of influence during Cold War
Warsaw Pact alliance between USSR and nations in their sphere of influence during Cold War
Iron Curtain what the nations in the Soviet sphere of influence "fell behind" during the Cold War
occupation zones Germany and Korea were divided into these following WWII
Berlin city in Germany that became focus of US/USSR tensions
Berlin Airlift measure taken by US to help Western Berliners during Berlin Crisis/Blockade
Berlin Crisis period when US and USSR were in standoff over what to do with Berlin
Berlin Wall "solution" USSR and East Germany came up with to deal with the Berlin Crisis
Yalta & Potsdam conferences between Stalin, Roosevelt, & Churchill to decide what to do when WWII ended-spheres of influence decided-Origin of Cold War
Truman Doctrine statement by President Truman that US would protect any nation threatened by communism during Cold War
containment Cold War policy created by Truman Doctrine
Mao Zedong leader of communist Red Army in Chinese Civil War-became leader of communist China as a result
domino theory theory that countries would fall to communism one by one like a set of dominoes-cause of"Containment" policy during Cold War
Jiang Jeishi/Chaing Kai Shek leader of Nationalist forces during Chinese Civil War-lost
People's Republic of China communist mainland China
Republic of China capitalist democracy now known as Taiwan
38th parallel latitude line that divides North and South Korea
DMZ/Demilitarized Zone heavily armed border diving North and South Korea as no peace treaty has been signed
Korean Conflict (War) first proxy war during Cold War-ends with North and South as 2 nations
Vietnam Police Action (War) proxy war of Cold War that US lost-Vietnam is communist nation
country that supported North Korea during Korean War China
Ho Chi Minh leader of Nationalist forces in Vietnam War-US enemy
Viet Cong/Viet Minh victorious Nationalist forces of Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam War`
French Indochina colonial name of Vietnam
Nikita Khrushchev leader of Soviet Union during Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962
Cuban Missile Crisis international crisis between US and USSR due to Khrushchev placing nuclear missiles in Cuba
Fidel Castro communist leader of Cuba who allowed Khrushchev to place nuclear missiles in Cuba
United Nations replaced the failed League of Nations after WWII-international peace-keeping organization
Universal Declaration of the Rights of Man document created by United Nation to provide code of conduct to protect inalienable rights around the world
Adolf Hitler leader of Germany & the Nazi Party responsible for WWII and the Holocaust
Franklin Delano Roosevelt US president during the Great Depression and WWII- famous for his "fireside chats"
Winston Churchill Prime Minister of England during WWII-US ally
Harold Truman US President who ended WWII by authorizing use of atomic bomb on Hiroshima & Nagasaki Japan
Dwight D. Eisenhower US General who was the Commander of the Allied forces in Europe-led D-Day invasion-liberated Western Europe from Nazi control, later became President of US
Douglas MacArthur US General who was Commander in the Pacific Theater of WWII & then in charge of occupation of Japan and Korean War
Bataan Death March march of US soldiers to prisoner camps in Philippines after MacArthur's forces defeated
island-hopping method used by US General MacArthurto liberate Philippines & defeat Japan in the Pacific Theater of WWII
George C. Marshall US General who recruited large military for WWII & created Marshall Plan for rebuilding of Europe
Nuremburg Trials Trials of Nazi war criminals for things like "crimes against humanity" following WWII
Jomo Kenyatta led revolution for independence of Kenya following WWII
African National Congress (ANC) led the revolution for independence and to end apartheid in South Africa following WWII
Nelson Mandela led the ANC to win South African independence, end apartheid, and become 1st Black President of South Africa
Algeria fought violent war for independence against French colonizers following WWII
Western Africa region of Africa that achieved independence peacefully after WWII
Mohandas Gandhi leader of the Indian independence movement-led the Indian National Party/Congress
caste system social structure of India dictated by Hinduism
Jawaharlal Nehru Indian Nationalist who wanted to make India like the Western democracies
French Madates Syria & Lebanon
British Mandates Palestine & Transjordan
Ottoman Empire part of WWI Central Powers, divided into mandates following its defeat by Allied Powers
Apartheid system of racial segregation imposed in South Africa-designed to keep the races "apart"
Golda Meir Prime Minister of Israel who led Israel to victory in Yom Kippur War
Gamal Abdul Nasser President of Egypt who nationalized Suez Canal and built the Aswan Dam
places where genocides have ocurred Rwanda, Kosovo, Cambodia, Armenia, Germany, Poland, USSR
Act of Supremacy in England, made king the head of Anglican Church diminishing authority of the Catholic Church & Pope
Margaret Thatcher Prime Minister of England who was good friend to US beacuse like US, she supported free trade and a powerful military
Northern Ireland Conflict conflict for political control between Protestant and Catholics up until the 1990s
examples of terrorism 9/11, Northern Ireland Conflict
examples of international trade networks NAFTA, EU, WTO
International Monetary Fund international "bank" that provides loans for development & tries to stabilize the international economy
Created by: dmunoz2