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Elton LEAP 2016

8th Grade Leap vocabulary

QuestionAnswer
The Southern US from California to Florida. Noted for movement of businesses. Sunbelt
Designed to show governmental boundaries of countries, states, and counties, the location of major cities, and they usually include significant bodies of water. Political Map
War between Christians and Muslims. Crusades
Focuses on the geography of the area and will often have shaded relief to show the mountains and valleys. Physical Map
U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy. U.S Census
A body of people representing the states of the US, who formally cast votes for the election of the president and vice president. Electorial College
The detailed description especially by means of surveying of particular localities, as cities, towns, or estates. Topographic
A minor change in a document. Amendment
It promised the protection of church rights, protection for the barons from illegal imprisonment, access to swift justice, and limitations on feudal payments to the Crown. Magna Carta
It was the first written framework of government established in what is now the United States. Mayflower Compact
This document served as the United States' first constitution, and was in force from March 1, 1781, until 1789 when the present day Constitution went into effect. Articles of Confederation
Pertaining to or of the nature of a union of states under a central government distinct from the individual governments of the separate states, as in federal government. Federal Union
Sovereignty of the people's rule is the principle that the authority of a state and its government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives. Popular Sovereignty
The legal requirement that the state must respect all legal rights that are owed to a person. Due Process
An act of vesting the legislative, executive, and judicial powers of government in separate bodies. Separation of Powers
The first ten amendments to the US Constitution, ratified in 1791 and guaranteeing such rights as the freedoms of speech, assembly, and worship. Bill of Rights
An ongoing process of control by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components. Colonization
A political upheaval that took place between 1765 and 1783 during which colonists in the Thirteen American Colonies rejected the British monarchy and aristocracy, overthrew the authority of Great Britain, and founded the United States of America. American Revolution
An agreement or a settlement of a dispute that is reached by each side making concessions. Compromise
A formal written request, typically one signed by many people, appealing to authority with respect to a particular cause. Petitions
A formal accusation of wrongdoing against a public official. Impeachment
Gives general information about the climate and precipitation of region. Climate Map
A precipitation map is a type of weather informational map that graphs and shows the amount of precipitation of a state, area, or any other area. The precipitation includes water, snow, hail, sleet. Precipitation Map
refers to several fields upon which the U.S. President Thomas Jefferson had an impact: Jeffersonian architecture. Jeffersonian democracy. Jeffersonian Bible. Jeffersonian
A place where different peoples, styles, theories, etc., are mixed together. Melting Pot
A war between citizens of the same country. Civil War
A long and severe recession in an economy or market. Great Depression
A formal accusation of wrongdoing against a public official. According to the United States Constitution, the House of Representatives can vote to impeach an official, but the Senate actually tries the case. Impeachment
Formal written request, typically one signed by many people, appealing to authority with respect to a particular cause. "she was asked to sign a petition against plans to build on the local playing fields". Petition
An agreement or a settlement of a dispute that is reached by each side making concessions. "an ability to listen to two sides in a dispute, and devise a compromise acceptable to both. Compromise
There are four main, or cardinal, points of the compass—north, south, east, and west. Cardinal Direction
North, south, east, and west are the only true directions. The directions on the compass that are halfway between these cardinal points are called northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest. Intermediate Direction
a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment. Ecosystem
An imaginary line that goes north and south through the Pacific Ocean, one day is on the east side of the line and the following day is on the west side International Date Line
A measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. Population Density
The largest wetland and swamp in the United States. Located in south central Louisiana, it is a combination of wetlands and river delta area. Atchafalaya Basin
Each of the imaginary parallel circles of constant latitude on the earth's surface. Parallel
A circle of constant longitude passing through a given place on the earth's surface and the terrestrial poles. Meridians
seasonal movement of animals from one region to another. Migration
NATO, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, is a military alliance of European and North American democracies founded after World War II to strengthen international ties between member states. NATO
The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) was an international organization for collective defense in Southeast Asia created by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty. SEATO
A military alliance of communist nations in eastern Europe. Organized in 1955 in answer to NATO, the Warsaw Pact included Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union. Warsaw
The United Nations (UN) is an international organization formed in 1945 to increase political and economic cooperation among member countries. United Nations
OPEC is a cartel that aims to manage the supply of oil in an effort to set the price of oil on the world market, in order to avoid fluctuations that might affect the economies of both producing and purchasing countries. OPEC
Heads of state or government, usually with considerable media exposure, tight security, and a prearranged agenda. Notable summit meetings include those of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin during World War II. Summit Meetings
A river formed by the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers in western Pennsylvania Ohio River Valley
a political upheaval that took place between 1765 and 1783 during which colonists in the Thirteen American Colonies rejected the British monarchy and aristocracy, overthrew the authority of Great Britain, and founded the United States of America. American Revolution
A natural feature of the earth's surface. Landforms
An imaginary line drawn around the earth equally distant from both poles, dividing the earth into northern and southern hemispheres and constituting the parallel of latitude 0°. Equator
a planet's meridian adopted as the zero of longitude. the earth's zero of longitude, which by convention passes through Greenwich, England. Prime Meridian
An accredited diplomat sent by a country as its official representative to a foreign country. Ambassador
A military campaign denotes the time during which a given is to achieve a particular desired resolution of a military conflict. Military Conflict
An interest that is best for you. Strategic Interest
A concept that a government, along with its parliaments, should protect the state and its citizens against all kind of "national" crises through a variety of power projections. National Security
Palestine and Israel Introduction. The Middle East conflict—a brief background, such as The Gaza Crisis, and Crisis in Lebanon. Middle East Conflict
The existence of a variety of cultural or ethnic groups within a society. Cultural Diversity
A consequence of specialization or the division of labor. Economic Interdependence
Moving borders outwards. Territorial Expansion
A half of a sphere. a half of the earth, usually as divided into northern and southern halves by the equator, or into western and eastern halves by an imaginary line passing through the poles. a half of the celestial sphere. Hemisphere
Each of two corresponding circles on the celestial sphere where the sun appears to turn after reaching its greatest declination, marking the northern and southern limits of the ecliptic. Tropic of Cancer
Each of two corresponding circles on the celestial sphere where the sun appears to turn after reaching its greatest declination, marking the northern and southern limits of the ecliptic. Tropic of Capricorn
Two weeks after the War of 1812 officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent, U.S. General Andrew Jackson achieves the greatest American victory of the war a? Battle of New Orleans
a source of energy that is not depleted by use, such as water, wind, or solar power Renewable
The spread of people across the world, i.e. where do people live. Population density is the number of people living in a particular area – usually 1 square mile or 1 square kilometre – and can be written as total population/land area. Population distribution
Type that uses a dot symbol to show the presence of a feature or phenomenon. Dot maps rely on a visual scatter to show spatial pattern. Density Map
is an artifact, a document, a recording, or other source of information that was created at the time under study. It serves as an original source of information about the topic. primary source
is any source about an event, period, or issue in history that was produced after that event, period or issue has passed. Aside from a textbook. secondary source
a view or judgment formed about something, not necessarily based on fact or knowledge. opinion
information, especially of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote or publicize a particular political cause or point of view. propaganda
was an Icelandic explorer considered by some as the first European to land in North America (excluding Greenland), before Christopher Columbus. Leif Ericson
The widespread transfer of animals, plants, culture, human populations, technology and ideas between the American and Afro-Eurasian hemispheres in the 15th and 16th centuries. Columbian exchange
A seven year war that lasted from 1756 to 1763, forming a chapter in the imperial struggle between Britain and France called the Second Hundred Years' War. French and Indian War
An Italian explorer responsible for the European discovery of America in 1492. He had sailed across the Atlantic Ocean from Spain, under the patronage of the king and queen, Ferdinand and Isabella, hoping to find a westward route to India. Christopher Columbus
was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico. Hernando de soto
A journey made by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, during the presidency of Thomas Jefferson, to explore the American Northwest, newly purchased from France, and some territories beyond. Lewis and Clark
Production of large amounts of standardized products. mass production
A manufacturing process in which parts are added to the semi- finished product. Assembly lines
The process of designing, lunching , and running a new business. Entrepreneurship
A method of teaching a foreign language by the exclusive use of that language, usually taught in a special school. Immersion
The deepest and longest lasting economic downturn in history. Great Depression
A policy of remaining apart from the affairs or interests of the other groups, especially the political affairs of the other countries. Isolationism
A policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force. Imperialism
A boom in the oil producing sector of an economy or a decline in the oil producing sector of an economy. Oil boom or decline
The Colony of Rhode Island Providence Plantations was one of England's original Thirteen Colonies established on the east coast of North America bordering the Atlantic Ocean. Rhode Island colony
The broadest quantitive measure of a nations total economic activity. Gross domestic product
was a law mandating religious tolerance for Trinitarian Christians Maryland Toleration Act
Measures the changes in the price level of market basket of consumer goods and services. Consumer price index
For each person in relation to people taken individually. Per capita
An evangelical and revitalization movement that swept Protestant Europe and British America. Great Awakening
Defined as a sustained increase in the general level of prices for goods and services. Inflation
French-Canadian fur trader and explorer, were chosen to lead an expedition that included five men and two canoes to find the direction and mouth of the Mississippi River. Marquette and Joliet
1.originating or occurring naturally in a particular place; native: Indigenous
is the total value of all goods and services produced in an economy. It is a regular tool used in macroeconomic analysis to determine whether an economy is growing or contracting by comparing output during two different points in time economic output
Inflation is the rate at which the general level of prices for goods and services is rising and, consequently, the purchasing power of currency is falling. Central banks attempt to limit inflation, and avoid . inflation
occurs when a person who is actively searching for employment is unable to find work unemployment
having or showing the knowledge, ability, or training to perform a certain activity or task well. skilled
not having or requiring special skill or training unskilled
When time passes by, you say it elapses. Four years elapse while you are in high school. Nine months elapse while you are in the womb. If two weeks have elapsed between your tennis lessons, there has been a two-week lapse between sessions. elapsed time
are the descendants of French colonists who settled in Acadia during the 17th and 18th centuries, some of whom are also Métis. Acadians
A province of eastern Canada comprising a mainland peninsula and the adjacent Cape Breton Island. It became the center of French Acadia . Nova Scotia
a person who favors the abolition of a practice or institution, especially capital punishment or (formerly) slavery. abolitionists
A biographical sketch, or a biosketch, is a type of writing generally done to inform the audience of a significant event or small portion of the person's life. biographical sketch
Historical fiction is defined as movies and novels in which a story is made up but is set in the past and sometimes borrows true characteristics of the time period in which it is set historical fiction
The value of one currency for the purpose of conversion to another. Exchange rate
a person who vigorously supports their country and is prepared to defend it against enemies or detractors. Patriots
The theory or practice of shielding a country's domestic industries Protectialism
The state of n Neutrality
A person who remains loyal to the established ruler or government. Loyalists
of or relating to Great Britain or the united kingdom, or to it's people or language. British
cost of an alternative that must be forgone in order to pursue a certain action. opportunity cost/trade-off
The act of specializing ; suitable for a special purpose. specialization
Good produced and used to make other goods and services. capital resources
Resources (actual and potential) supplied by nature natural resources
the stage of human social development and organization that is considered most advanced. civilization
A river in eastern Africa, the longest river in the world, that rises in east central Africa near Lake Victoria and flows 4,160 miles (6,695 km) north through Uganda, South Sudan, ect. nile
village in Pakistan: site of successive cities of the Indus valley civilization. Harrapa
a temple of Sumerian origin in the form of a pyramidal tower, consisting of a number of stories and having about the outside a broad ascent winding round the structure, presenting the appearance of a series of terraces. Ziggurats
a Babylonian legal code of the 18th century b.c. or earlier, instituted by Hammurabi and dealing with criminal and civil matters. Code of Hammurabi
an ancient civilization that flourished in the Indus River valley, from about 2500 to 1500 b.c. indus valley
It is named for the vast quantities of yellow silt it carries to its delta. The river is sometimes called "China's Sorrow" because of the devastating floods that once occurred regularly in its lower course. Huang-He/Yellow River
an ancient region in W Asia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers: now part of Iraq. Mesopotamia
the artificial application of water to land to assist in the production of crops. Irrigation
The Columbian Exchange or Grand Exchange was the widespread transfer of information. Columbian exchange
The war was fought between the colonies of British America and New France, with both sides supported by military units from their parent countries of Great Britain and France, as well as Native American allies. French and indain war
the action of immersing someone or something in a liquid. "his back was still raw from immersion in the icy Atlantic Ocean immersion
was one of England's original Thirteen Colonies established on the east coast of North America bordering the Atlantic Ocean. After the American Revolution, it became the state of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. rode island clony
enigmatic or incomprehensible symbols or writing hieroglyphics
the action of cultivating land, or the state of being cultivated. cultivation
an amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1865, abolishing slavery. 13th Amendment
to convert (animals, plants, etc.) to domestic uses; domestication
(of a system or situation) excessively complicated, typically involving a great deal of administrative detail. Byzantine
Originally Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus. AD 483–565. Byzantine emperor (527–565) who held the eastern frontier Of his empire against the Persians and reconquered former Roman territories in Africa, Italy, and Spain. Justinian
The Iranian language of modern Iran, written in Arabic script Persian
The Great.” 550?–486 BC. King of Persia (521–486) who expanded the empire, organized a highly efficient dministrative system, and invaded Greece, only to be defeated at the Battle of Marathon in 490. Darius
Is the Greek version of the Old-Persian kûruš or Khûrvaš meaning "sun-like": the noun khûr denotes "sun" and -vaš is a suffix of likeness. Cyrus the Great
A member of a Semitic people inhabiting ancient Phoenicia and its colonies. The Phoenicians prospered from trade and manufacturing until the capital, Tyre, was sacked by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. Phoenicians
an amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1868, defining national citizenship and forbidding the states to restrict the basic rights of citizens or other persons. 14th Amendment
an amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1870, prohibiting the restriction of voting rights “on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”. 15th Amendment
the process by which the states that had seceded were reorganized as part of the Union after the Civil War. Reconstruction
seventeenth president of the U.S. 1865–69. Andrew Johnson
Tools are objects that make our lives easier. A computer or smart phone are examples of modern-day tools. Paleolithic is a word that comes from the two Greek words Palladio, meaning old, and lithos, meaning stone. Old Stone Age
One of a series of political compromises reached in an effort to hold the United States together peacefully. Compromise of 1877
The act applied to all the ex-Confederate states in the South, except Tennessee who had already ratified the Fourteenth Amendment. Military Reconstruction
Not able to be renewed. Nonrenewable
A stone wall extending for fifteen hundred miles across northern China. Built to defend the Chinese border in ancient times, it has become a favorite destination for visitors to the country. Great Wall
Was a network of trade routes, formally established during the Han Dynasty of China, which linked the regions of the ancient world in commerce. Silk Road
The monotheistic religion of the Jews. the Jews collectively. Judaism
The religion based on the person and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, or its beliefs and practices. Christianity
the branch of science concerned with the properties of the earth's water, especially its movement in relation to land. hydrology
an irregularly occurring and complex series of climatic changes affecting the equatorial Pacific region and beyond every few years, characterized by the appearance of unusually warm, nutrient-poor water off northern Peru and Ecuador, typically in late Dec El Nino
A place or period in which nothing happens or in which no life exists Dead Zones
Almost or entirely surrounded by land; having no coastline or seaport. Landlocked
capable of being supported or upheld, as by having its weight borne from below. Sustainable
The phrase limited resources means that the quantities of productive resources available to the economy are finite. Limited Recources
favoring or enforcing strict obedience to authority, especially that of the government, at the expense of personal freedom. Authoritarian
of or relating to a system of government that is centralized and dictatorial and requires complete subservience to the state. Totalitarian
a small group of people having control of a country, organization, or institution. Oligarchy
Prehistoric city Pakistan in Indus valley NE of modern Karachi Mohenjo- Dara
A citadel or fortified part of an ancient Greek city, typically built on a hill. the ancient citadel at Athens, containing the Parthenon and other notable buildings, mostly dating from the 5th century BC. Acropolis
A ruler of Greece in the fourth century b.c. As a general, he conquered most of the ancient world, extending the civilization of Greece east to India. Alexander the Great
A political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs. Communism
A system of government in which one person reigns, usually a king or queen. Monarchy
A government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation usually involving periodically held free elections. Democracy
Also known as the Act Concerning Religion, was a law mandating religious tolerance for Trinitarian Christians. Passed on April 21, 1649, by the assembly of the Maryland colony, in St. Mary's City. Maryland Toleration Act
Can refer to several periods of religious revival in American religious history. Historians and theologians identify three or four waves of increased religious enthusiasm occurring between the early 18th century and the late 19th century Great Awakening
A person who vigorously supports their country and is prepared to defend it against enemies or detractors. Patriots
Were American colonists who remained loyal to the British Crown during the American Revolutionary War. At the time they were often called Tories, Royalists, or King's Men; Patriots called them "persons inimical to the liberties of America." Loyalist
Of or relating to Great Britain or the United Kingdom, or to its people or language. British
was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. A renowned polymath, Franklin was a leading author, printer, political theorist, politician, freemason, postmaster, scientist, inventor, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat. Benjamin frankln
An American Founding Father who was principal author of the Declaration of Independence. He was elected the second Vice President of the United States, serving under John Adams and in 1800 was elected third President. Thomas jefferson
An American statesman, political philosopher, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. Samuel Sdams
The first President of the United States. George Washington
An American merchant, smuggler, statesman, and prominent Patriot of the American Revolution. He served as president of the Second Continental Congress and was the first and third Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. John Hancock
A general during the American Revolutionary War who originally fought for the American Continental Army but defected to the British Army. Benedict Arnold
The official way to confirm something, usually by vote. It is the formal validation of a proposed law. Ratification
Named after its advocate Thomas Jefferson, was one of two dominant political outlooks and movements in the United States from the 1790s to the 1820s. Jefferson Democracy
A phrase first used in the Boston Columbia Sentinel newspaper on July 12, 1817 following the good-will visit to Boston of the new President James Monroe, is generally applied to describe the national mood of the United States from about 1815 to 1825 Era of Good Feeling
A French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars. Napoleon
A flat area created on the side of a hill and used especially for growing crops. Terraces
An area of soft, wet land that has many grasses and other plants. Marshes
A piece of land shaped like a triangle that is formed when a river splits into smaller rivers before it flows into an ocean. Delta
A religion that is practiced chiefly in Haiti. Voodoo
Of or relating to the system of beliefs and laws that govern a country ; of or relating to a Constitution. Constitutional
A country that is governed by elected representatives and by an elected leader (such as a president) rather than by a king or queen. Republic
Of or relating to land or water that is owned or controlled by a government. Territorial
Of or relating to North American Indians of the Great Plains or to their culture. Plains
The Battle of New Orleans was an engagement fought between January 8 and January 18, 1815, constituting the final major and most one-sided battle of the War of 1812. Battle of New Orleans
The American Civil War, widely known in the United States as simply the Civil War as well as other names, was a civil war fought from 1861 to 1865 to determine the survival of the Union or independence for the Confederacy. Civil War
Explorer and founder of Louisiana. Iberville
A Spanish military leader and colonial administrator who served as colonial governor of Louisiana and Cuba, and later as Viceroy of New Spain. Bernardo de Galvez
A United States politician, best known as the first non-colonial Governor of Louisiana. William C. C. Claiborne
An American lawyer, politician and soldier. Born in New Hampshire and raised in Massachusetts, who served in the Massachusetts legislature and as an officer in the state militia. Benjamin Butler
An American publisher and politician, a Union Army officer, and the first person of African descent to become governor of a U.S. state. He was born free in Georgia P. B. S. Pinchback
Nicknamed The Kingfish, was an American politician who served as the 40th Governor of Louisiana from 1928 to 1932 and as a member of the United States Senate from 1932 until his assassination in 1935. Huey Long
A land deal between the United States and France, in which the U.S. acquired approximately 827,000 square miles of land west of the Mississippi River for $15 million. Louisiana Purchase
The French civil code established under Napoleon I in 1804. The code forbade privileges based on birth, allowed freedom of religion, and specified that government jobs should go to the most qualified. Napoleonic Code
A public speaker, especially one who is eloquent or skilled. Orators
A city that with its surrounding territory forms an independent state. City-States
As in class society, is a set of concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories. Social class structure
An artificial channel for conveying water, typically in the form of a bridge supported by tall columns across a valley. Aqueducts
The legislation that stood at the foundation of Roman law. The Tables consolidated earlier traditions into an enduring set of laws. 12 Tables
A title used by Roman emperors, especially those from Augustus to Hadrian Caesar
The peace that existed between nationalities within the Roman Empire. Pax Romana
Emperor of Rome who stopped the persecution of Christians and in 324 made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire; in 330 he moved his capital from Rome to Byzantium and renamed it Constantinople (280-337) Constantine
A river in SW Asia, rising in E Turkey and flowing southeast through Baghdad to the Euphrates in SE Iraq, forming the delta of the Shatt-al-Arab, which flows into the Persian Gulf: part of a canal and irrigation system as early as 2400 bc, with many ancie Tigris-Euphrates
The status of being a state of the US. Statehood
The withdrawal of a group from a larger entity, especially a political entity, but also any organization, union or military alliance. Secession
An impression, model, or re-enactment of a past event formed from the available evidence. Reconstruction
A military conflict that lasted from June 18, 1812 to February 18, 1815, fought between the United States of America and Great Britain, its North American colonies, and its North American Indian allies. War of 1812
An attack by the Natchez people on French colonists near present-day Natchez, Mississippi, on November 29, 1729. Natchez Indian Wars
A confederation of Secessionist American states existing from 1861 to 1865. Confederation
A governing body in New France. It acted as both Supreme Court for the colony of New France, and as a policy making body, although, its policy role diminished over time. French Sovereign Council
A mountain range in Italy that extends for 880 miles (1,400 km) from the northwest to the southern tip of the country. Apennine Mountains
The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 BC to 146 BC. Punic Wars
Cultural diffusion is the spread of cultural beliefs and social activities from one group to another. Cultural Diffusion
Historically, the ancient city states of Mesopotamia in the fertile crescent Cradles of Civilization
A battle in Montana near the Little Bighorn River between United States cavalry under Custer and several groups of Native Americans (1876) Little Bighorn
a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars. Napoleon
Created by: StevenWharton