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Unit 11 SOL Review

Post World War II (Cold War)

Occupation of Japan U.S. controlled & rebuilt Japan as a democratic & capitalistic nation. Once the government was stable, the Japanese ruled themselves.
United Nations International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace
Nuclear attacks The nuclear attacks at Hiroshima & Nagasaki had devastating natural & human long-term effects
Cold War Uneasy peace for 45 years after WWII between U.S. and Soviet Union; neither side directly went to war with each other. A competition for control between Democratic & Communist countries.
Partitioning of Germany Allies divide Germany into 4 sections. USSR created Eastern section-Communist; Britain, U.S. & France make western section-democratic
Truman Doctrine Policy, create by Truman, providing for economic & military aid to any country threatened by communism. Came to be known as the “containment policy”.
“Containment” to halt further Communist expansion with force if necessary in the world
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Alliance formed in 1949 by the U.S., Canada, and a group of European nations to provide mutual aid in the event of armed attack
Warsaw Pact Soviet Union formed its own military alliance with 7 eastern European countries
Iron Curtain phrase created by Winston Churchill to describe the post-war division of Europe (Democratic vs. Communist)
Marshall Plan American aid program to help European nations recover economically from WWII in order to stop the spread of communism.
Eastern Europe area where U.S. provided aid so Eastern Europe countries would not fall to communism as the USSR was spreading
Massive retaliation Eisenhower created policy of all out nuclear war with USSR to deter any nuclear strikes on U.S. or allies. Countries were afraid of retaliation with nuclear weapons if USSR & U.S. ever went to war.
Virginia’s impact Virginia economically benefited from the Cold War. Hampton Roads- (Norfolk) a naval base that built warships & weapons during military build-up. Pentagon- (Arlington) United States military headquarters.
Cuba Island off the coast of Florida that became Communist under Castro
Bay of Pigs Cuban exile forces, trained by CIA & FBI, went to Cuba to start a civil war & overthrow Castro. Mission was a disaster. JFK was president.
Cuban Missile Crisis In 1962 the Soviet Union promised to defend Cuba with nuclear weapons; Kennedy said a missile attack from Cuba would trigger an all-out attack on the USSR. USSR removed the missiles from Cuba.
Arms Race (Military build-up) Many democratic & Communist nations created, invented and replaced weapons in order to compete with opposing political groups
Berlin Wall East Germans (Communists controlled by USSR) built a barrier between East and West Berlin to stop ideas and East Germans from fleeing to West Germany
American Nuclear Safety Plans Built bomb shelters underground as a safe place to go in case of nuclear attack. Students practiced drills in school.
McCarthyism Unfairly accusing others of disloyalty; stating that Communists had infiltrated US institutions (government, military, Hollywood)
Kennedy’s assassination November 22, 1963 Kennedy was shot in Dallas, Texas while campaigning for re-election. The country’s confidence was shaken and groups were divided over what to do in Vietnam.
Fall of China Mao takes over China & creates a Communist government; democratic leader, Chiang Kai-shek, flees to Taiwan
Korean War North Korea (Communist) invaded South Korea (democratic)
Chinese intervention China joined North Korean forces & supplied a large army
38th Parallel stalemate At the end of the war, North and South Korea were divided at the 38th parallel because neither side would compromise.
Vietnam War 1946-1975; Northern Vietnamese (Communist) attack South Vietnam (democratic); U.S. helps South Vietnam to contain communism
South Vietnam U.S. sent troops & supplies to this country during the Vietnam War
Vietnamization President Nixon’s plan to build up South Vietnamese forces while gradually withdrawing US troops
“Peace with honor” Nixon wanted to create peace in Vietnam without disrespecting the sacrifice of American soldiers - Vietnamization
Campus protests College students protesting U.S. involvement in Vietnam War & the draft; Kent State University
Treatment of Vietnam Veterans Returned to face indifference or outright hostilities from Americans against the war. It took many years before the country built the Vietnam Wall to honor the veterans.
Communism An economic policy where the government controls all of the businesses and jobs. The USSR told each company how much to make, what to make, what they could sell it for, and how much to pay its workers.
Military spending The USSR could not afford to continue in the Arms and Space Race, so their economy started to collapse.
Nationalism of Republics The USSR is made up of several republics. Those republics started rebelling to become independent nations again. Very quickly the USSR breaks up into separate countries.
Reunification of Germany Under G.W. Bush, Germany is reunited and becomes democratic. USSR loses control of Eastern German.
“Perestroika” Gorbachev’s plan for economic reconstructing Soviet society to be strong economically.
“Glasnost” Gorbachev’s policy of encouraging openness through the freedom of expression in the Soviet Union
Yugoslavia Another Communist country breaks up and the Warsaw Pact is ended. The people violently rebel and UN/ US military forces are sent.
Space Race President Kennedy started the space program, NASA, in 1960. It has improved technology, media, and communication within the United States & globally for the past three decades.
John Glenn First American astronaut to orbit (go around) the earth in 1969.
Neil Armstrong First American astronaut to step on the moon. Famous quote, “That’s one small step for a man; one giant leap for mankind”
Sally Ride First female American Astronaut
Space Exploration Examples of technology advances because of the Space Race are: Space Shuttles, Mars Rover, Voyager Missions, & the Hubble Telescope.
John F. Kennedy Democrat; President during the Bay of Pigs, Cuban Missile Crisis; he was assassinated in 1963. Pledged support for the American space program in 1960
Fidel Castro Cuban dictator; Communist leader during “Bay of Pigs” & Cuban Missile Crisis
Lyndon Baines Johnson Democrat; U.S. President that sent American troop to the Vietnam War
Joseph McCarthy Senator; believed that Communists had infiltrated many areas of American life
Julius & Ethel Rosenberg First civilians in American history to be put to death for espionage; believed to be Communists
Alger Hiss State Department official accused of being a Communist spy
Richard Nixon Republican; as President helped reduce Cold War tensions; created Vietnamizaton-ending Vietnam War; resigned due to Watergate
Ronald Reagan Republican; President known as “The Great Communicator”; told Gorbachev to tear down Berlin Wall and it happened
Mikhail Gorbachev Become Soviet leader in 1985; introduced “perestroika” & “glasnost” which moved USSR away from State controlled communism
Created by: catherine_pace
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