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Unit 10 SOL Review

World War II

TermDefinition
Embargo way to apply economic pressure on countries by not trading with them
Kamikaze Japanese suicide pilots; the name means “divine wind”
Neutrality nonparticipation in a war or dispute
Censorship deleting parts of publications, correspondence or theatrical performances
Genocide systematic killing of a racial or cultural group
Propaganda information that is spread for the purpose of promoting some cause
P.O.W. prisoner of war; a person who surrenders to (or is taken by) the enemy in time of war
Non-Aggression Pact agreement between Hitler and Stalin saying they would not go to war against each other
Embargo on Japan The U.S. placed an embargo on Japanese oil to protest their taking over other countries in Asia
Manchurian Invasion 1939 – first military action by Japan in the Pacific
Non-Recognition Policy U.S. policy that did not recognize conquests of warring countries (did not recognize Japan’s capture of Manchuria or Italy’s conquest of Ethiopia
Isolationism Opposition to political and economic entanglements with other countries; U.S. policy at the beginning of WW II
Allied powers alliance of United States, Great Britain, and Soviet Union
Axis powers alliance of Germany, Italy and Japan
Invasion of Poland Invasion of Poland in September, 1939 by Germany and U.S.S.R. that began World War II; first non-appeased German aggression
Battle of Britain total air war waged by Germany against Great Britain in 1940; led to Lend-Lease Act being passed by the U.S Congress in 1941
Lend-Lease Act a 1941 act allowing the U.S. President to sell, lease, or lend equipment and supplies to Allied nations whose defense the President deemed vital to American security
Pearl Harbor Japan attacked U.S. Pacific fleet on December 7, 1941 killing more than 2,300 Americans; U.S. enters war
“Destroy Hitler First” U.S. Strategy when it first entered WW II, to defeat Hitler in Europe, then defeat Japan
El Alamein Egypt; October 1942, British under General Montgomery halted German advance on Suez Canal; stopped Germans from getting Mid-East oil and invading U.S.S.R. from the south, and blocking Allied supply route through Suez
Stalingrad Germany broke pact with U.S.S.R. and invaded the Soviet Union; Germans halted; turning point of WW II on the Eastern Front; 500,000 Soviets died
Normandy Landings (D-Day) The day on which the Allied forces invaded France during World War II to recapture France from the Nazis- June 6, 1944
Island-Hopping Strategy U.S strategy in the Pacific to gain control of the islands Japan had conquered
Midway American dive-bombers attacked and sank 4 Japanese carriers and these islands remained in American hands; Turning Point in the Pacific
Iwo Jima + Okinawa two bloodiest battles in the Pacific; these were the closest islands to Japan and were the last captured on the “island-hopping campaign”
Manhattan Project development of the atomic bomb that was dropped on Hiroshima & Nagasaki in 1945
Hiroshima August 6, 1945 the Enola Gay dropped an atomic bomb on this city in Japan
Nagasaki August 9, 1945 a second bomb was dropped in Japan on this city
Navajo Code Talkers transmitted telephone and radio messages for American forces in the Pacific; had code words for combat terms (chicken hawk for dive bomber) confusing the Japanese
Nisei Regiments American regiments in the Pacific composed of second generation Japanese-American citizens who spoke fluent Japanese and greatly aided the Pacific War effort; they were victims of discrimination
Tuskegee Airman Pilots in an all-black 99th Pursuit Squadron who fought in Italy
“Final solution” Hitler’s decision to eliminate Jews and other “undesirables” in concentration camps
“Undesirables” Jews, Eastern Europeans, homosexuals, gypsies, the physically and mentally handicapped, and others murdered in Nazi concentration camps
Holocaust the systematic murder of Jews and other groups by Nazis
Geneva Conventions international agreement on the rules of war, treatment of POWs, etc., set up after World War II
Nuremberg Trials due to hideous revelations about Nazi death camps, 24 leading Nazis were placed on trial
Industrial retooling changing machines in factories to manufacture weapons instead of non-essential items
“Rosie the Riveter” picture in propaganda posters encouraging women to participate in the war effort
Selective Service Compulsory enrollment in the armed forces; the draft
Great Migration movement of African-Americans from the South to northern cities looking for work
Japanese internment the U.S. Government’s movement of Japanese American families to segregated camps
Rationing a fixed portion, especially an amount of food allotted to persons in military service or to civilians in times of scarcity
War bonds savings bonds sold by the U.S. government to pay for the war
Franklin Delano Roosevelt President of the United States until death in 1945
Winston Churchill Prime Minister of England
Adolf Hitler Nazi leader of Germany
Joseph Stalin Communist leader of the Soviet Union
Emperor Hirohito political leader of Japan
Hideki Tojo military leader of Japan
Benito Mussolini Fascist leader of Italy; allied with Hitler
Charles DeGaulle leader of France
General George Patton American General; led Allies through Europe
General Dwight Eisenhower American General; Supreme Commander of the European Army
General Douglas MacArthur American General; Supreme Commander of the Pacific fleet
Created by: catherine_pace